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The Fleet Type Submarine Online
Submarine Hydraulic Systems

Submarine Hydraulic Systems manual cover

Submarine Hydraulic Installations, Navpers 16169, is one of a series of submarine training manuals that was completed just after WW II. The series describes the peak of WW II US submarine technology.

In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. In addition to errors we have attempted to preserve from the original (for example, it was H.L. Hunley, not CS Huntley), this text was captured by optical character recognition. This process creates errors that are compounded while encoding for the Web. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction.

Our thanks to Shelly Shelstad ([email protected]) for permitting us to use images he has scanned, particularly the oversized images that were meticulously pieced together. History on CD ROM sells a very nice CD or thumb drive version of this manual in PDF format for easy access off the web and for a printing. Thanks also to IKON Office Solutions (now Ricoh USA for scanning services.

Richard Pekelney

Drawing of bottom of periscope, handles down Search

NavPers 16169
Produced for ComSubLant by Standards and Curriculum Division Training, Bureau of Naval Personnel. Submarine Hydraulic Installations
June 1946

This is one of a series of Submarine
Training Manuals. The series includes:
1. The Fleet Type Submarine NavPers 16160
2. Submarine Main Propulsion Diesels NavPers 16161
3. Submarine Electrical Installations NavPers 16162
4. Submarine Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Systems NavPers 16163
5. Submarine Distilling Systems Navpers 16163A
6. Submarine Air Systems NavPers 16164
7. Submarine Periscope Manual NavPers 16165
8. Submarine Trim and Drain Systems NavPers 16166
9. Submarine Sonar Operator's Manual NavPers 16167
10. Submarine Underwater Log Systems NavPers 16168
11. Submarine Hydraulic Systems NavPers 16169
12. Torpedo Tubes, 21-Inch submerged, Mks 32 to 39 O.P. 1085

This manual, prepared at the Submarine School, New London, Connecticut, is designed for use in both instruction and servicing. It includes complete descriptions of most submarine hydraulic systems of both Portsmouth and Electric Boat Company design as well as discussions of their operating principles and a detailed description of the operation, installation, and repair of each part. Trouble shooting is presented as a separate chapter, outlining in chart form, troubles, causes, and remedies.

Step-by-step work sheets, or job analyses, are included by systems for the more common inspection, service, and repair routines. Free use is made of cutaway and schematic drawings to define operating principles and maintenance procedures.

It is recognized that equipment design is subject to change as new requirements are taken into account, and as recommendations of the forces afloat are acted upon. Consequently, the descriptions and discussions included must be considered as generally typical rather than as final and specific in all details.


A. Introduction 1
B. Theory of Hydraulics 2
A. Introduction 17
B. IMO Pumps 17
C. The Waterbury Speed Gear 21
A. Introduction 41
B. Power Generating System 42
C. Flood and Vent Control System 57
D. Periscope and Vertical Antenna Hoists 69
E. Forward and After Service Lines 71
F. Emergency Steering and Plane Tilting Systems 79
A. Introduction 80
B. Description 80
C. Operation 98
A. Introduction 105
B. Stern Plane System 107
C. Bow Plane System 115
D. Other Bow Plane Systems 124
A. Introduction 131
B. Detailed Service Troubles, Causes, and Remedies 133
Foldouts Back of book

1-1. Liquids of different densities 3
1-2. Weight of an isolated column of water 3
1-3. Weight = Total Force 4
1-4. Equal levels produce equal pressures 4
1-5. Unequal levels produce unequal pressures 4
1-6. Pressure on submerged body increases with increasing depth 5
1-7. Pressure increases with depth 5
1-8. Equal total forces from unequal pressures 5
1-9. Applied pressure is exerted equally in all directions 6
1-10. Transmission of equal pressures to equal areas 6
1-11. Equal pressure transmitted to larger area 7
1-12. Multiple units from a single source of power 7
1-13. Automobile hydraulic-brake system 7
1-14. Principle of a suction pump 8
1-15. Hand-operated reciprocating pump 9
1-16. Rotary gear pump 10
1-17. A simple hydraulic system 11
1-18. Single acting hydraulic cylinder 12
1-19. Ball check valve 12
1-20. Power-driven hydraulic system 13
1-21. Double acting hydraulic cylinder 14
1-22. Spool-type control valve 14
1-23. Principle of the relief valve 15
2-1. IMO pump 17
2-2. IMO rotors 17
2-3. Cutaway of IMO pump 18
2-4. IMO pump showing pipe plugs and balancing connection 19
2-5. Removing packing-gland nut 20
2-6. Waterbury A-end 21
2-7. Waterbury B-end 21
2-8. Tilt-box at neutral 22
2-9. Maximum tilt 22
2-10. Piston at top 23
2-11. Piston in middle 23
2-12. Piston at bottom 23
2-13. Cutaway of Waterbury B-end 24
2-14. Diagram of B-end 26
2-15. Separating shaft from barrel 27

2-16. Cutaway of piston assembly 27
2-17. Cutaway of valve plate 29
2-18. Cutaway of control shaft 30
2-19. Tilt-box at neutral 31
2-20. Tilt-box at slight tilt 31
2-21. Tilt-box at maximum tilt 32
2-22. Tilt-box at reverse tilt 32
2-23. Removing replenishing valve block cover 36
2-24. Taking out replenishing valve 36
2-25. Taking off end cover 36
2-26. Lifting case 36
2-27. Removing trunnion bearing block screws 37
2-28. Driving out trunnion bearing blocks 37
2-29. Separating shaft from socket ring 37
2-30. Removing bearings 38
2-31. Inserting valve plate bearing 40
2-32. Installing oil seal 40
3-1. Schematic piping diagram of power generating system 41
3-2. Main supply tank 42
3-3. Cutaway of main supply tank 43
3-4. Accumulator shown with pilot valve 44
3-5. Cutaway of accumulator 44
3-6. Accumulator packing (oil) 45
3-7. Accumulator packing (air) 45
3-8. Accumulator in fully loaded position 46
3-9. Accumulator in unloaded position 46
3-10. Contact makers for pump controls 47
3-11. Main supply manifold 48
3-12. Cutaway of main supply manifold 50
3-13. Cutaway of main return manifold 51
3-14. Pilot valve 51
3-15. Cutaway of pilot valve 52
3-16. Automatic bypass and nonreturn valve 53
3-17. Cutaway of automatic bypass and nonreturn valve 53
3-18. Cutaway of nonreturn valve 54
3-19. Cutaway of quick-throw cut-out valve 54
3-20. Cutaway of hydraulic cut-out valve 55
3-21. Cutaway of hydraulic Silbraz valve 55
3-22. Contact makers for pump controls 56
3-23. Piping diagram of flood and vent system and periscope and antenna mast hoists 58
3-24. Main vent control manifold (six-valve manifold) 59

3-25. Cutaway of safety and negative flood, engine air induction and hull ventilation control manifold (three-valve manifold) 60
3-26. Safety and negative flood, engine air induction and hull ventilation control manifold (three-valve manifold) 61
3-27. Vent valve operating gear and hydraulic unit cylinder 61
3-28. Cutaway of vent valve hydraulic unit cylinder and operating gear 62
3-29. Diagram of vent control valve and cylinder, OPEN 63
3-30. Flood valve operating gear and hydraulic cylinder 63
3-31. Diagram of flood valve operating gear and hydraulic cylinder in OPEN and CLOSED positions 64
3-32. Diagram of vent control valve and cylinder, CLOSE 65
3-33. Diagram of vent control valve and cylinder, HAND 66
3-34. Diagram of vent control valve and cylinder, EMERGENCY 67
3-35. Diagram of periscope hoist approaching fully raised position 68
3-36. Diagram of periscope hoist in fully raised (tripped) position 68
3-37. Piping diagram of fore and aft service lines 70
3-38. Cutaway of main engine drowned-type exhaust valve operating gear and hydraulic cylinder 71
3-39. Diagram of main engine drowned-type exhaust valve operating gear and hydraulic cylinder, CLOSE 73
3-40. Diagram of main engine drowned-type exhaust valve operating gear and hydraulic cylinder, OPEN 74
3-41. Cutaway of outer door control valve 75
3-42. Diagram of outer door control valve in three positions 75
3-43. Schematic diagram of outer door operating mechanism 76
3-44. Cutaway and diagram of echo-ranging and detecting apparatus 78
4-1. Schematic view of steering system 81
4-2. Cutaway of control cylinder assembly, with oil-type centering spring 82
4-3. Motor driven Waterbury A-end pump, with new-type centering spring 84
4-4. Steering system main manifold 84
4-5. Diagram of steering system main manifold, top view 85
4-6. Diagram of steering system main manifold, bottom view 85
4-7. Cutaway of steering system main manifold 86
4-8. Control room steering stand 87
4-9. Cutaway of main steering wheel and steering stand gear box 88
4-10. Telemotor pump control lever 90
4-11. Cutaway of change 90
4-12. Diagram of change valve in three positions 91
4-13. Schematic diagram of ports and lands in change valve 92
4-14. Cutaway of emergency control valve 93
4-15. Diagram of clutch and emergency steering wheel spur gears, clutch handle up 93

4-16. Flow diagram of emergency control valve in three positions 94
4-17. Diagram of clutch and emergency steering wheel, clutch handle down 94
4-18. Cutaway of main ram assembly 95
4-19. Packing used in main ram 96
4-20. Exploded view of chevron packing for steering system main ram 96
4-21. Diagram of rudder assembly and guides 97
4-22. Vent and replenishing manifold 97
4-23. Cutaway of quick-throw, plug-type, hand cut-out valve 98
4-24. Operation diagram of steering system, by normal POWER 99
4-25. Operation diagram of steering system, by HAND 101
4-26. Operation diagram of steering system, by EMERGENCY 103
5-1. Diving control stand 105
5-2. Piping diagram of stern plane system 106
5-3. Front view of diving control stand (stern plane) 108
5-4. Rear view of diving control stand (stern plane) 108
5-5. Change valve in three positions 109
5-6. Emergency control valve in three positions 110
5-7. Cutaway of control cylinder 111
5-8. Stern plane ram 112
5-9. Cutaway of stern plane ram 112
5-10. Flow diagram of stern plane system 113
5-11. Piping diagram of bow plane system 114
5-12. Ram and tiller assembly 115
5-13. Cutaway of bow plane ram 116
5-14. Cutaway of rigging control valve 117
5-15. Rigging control valve in three positions 118
5-16. Bow plane rigging system 118
5-17. Cutaway of tilting interlock 120
5-18. Cutaway of rigging interlock 121
5-19. Bow plane system in rigging position 122
5-20. Bow plane system in tilting position 122
5-21. Cutaway of change-and-control valve 125
5-22. Diagram of bow plane system using Waterbury A-end and B-end 126
5-23. Bow plane system used in Electric Boat Company submarines, power tilting 127
5-24. Bow plane system used in Electric Boat Company submarines, hand rigging 129
7-1. Location of hydraulic system components Back of book
7-2. Main power system Back of book
7-3. Planes, windlass-and-capstan system Back of book
7-4. Steering system Back of book

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