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The Fleet Type Submarine Online
Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

Submarine Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems Manual Cover

Submarine Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems, Navpers 16163, is one of a series of submarine training manuals that was completed just after WW II. The series describes the peak of WW II US submarine technology.

In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. In addition to errors we have attempted to preserve from the original (for example, it was H.L. Hunley, not CSHuntley), this text was captured by optical character recognition. This process creates errors that are compounded while encoding for the Web. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction.

Our thanks to IKON Office Solutions (now Ricoh USA for scanning services.

Richard Pekelney

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NavPers 16163
Produced for ComSubLant by Standards and Curriculum Division Training, Bureau of Naval Personnel. Submarine Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems
December 1945


This is one of a series of Submarine
Training Manuals. The series includes:
1. The Fleet Type Submarine NavPers 16160
2. Submarine Main Propulsion Diesels NavPers 16161
3. Submarine Electrical Installations NavPers 16162
4. Submarine Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Systems NavPers 16163
5. Submarine Distilling Systems Navpers 16163A
6. Submarine Air Systems NavPers 16164
7. Submarine Periscope Manual NavPers 16165
8. Submarine Trim and Drain Systems NavPers 16166
9. Submarine Sonar Operator's Manual NavPers 16167
10. Submarine Underwater Log Systems NavPers 16168
11. Submarine Hydraulic Systems NavPers 16169
12. Torpedo Tubes, 21-Inch submerged, Mks 32 to 39 O.P. 1085


In the field of engineering as it is applicable to auxiliary equipment aboard a submarine, slight changes and slight modifications representing minor deviations from a general textbook are always apparent. Some of these modifications are necessary because of conversion, adaptation, or redesign; others because of experimentation. Yet, in all cases there is strict adherence to the established principles of maintenance and operation.

The Submarine School, Submarine Base, New London, Connecticut, and other activities of Submarines, Atlantic Fleet, have collaborated in the preparation of this manual. It is designed as both an instruction and service manual covering the established procedures for operation and maintenance of air-conditioning and refrigerating equipment.

Detailed descriptive information is given on starting and stopping procedures, installation and repair techniques, and inspection routines.

The manual is presented in two parts: Part 1, Refrigeration; and Part 2, Air Conditioning. Each part includes the theory of operating and servicing of the equipment, and assembly and disassembly procedures and repair routines. Free use is made of job sheets outlining in chronological order the steps necessary for the successful completion of the more common maintenance and service conditions. A glossary of terms and an index are included for easy reference.



Part 1. Refrigeration

Chapter Page
1. General Introduction 3
2. Refrigeration 4
3. Theory of Heat 5
4. Principles of Mechanical Refrigeration 15
5. Freon 12 18
6. Refrigeration Cycle of Freon 12 22
7. Details of Refrigeration System 28
8. Operation and Troubles 53
9. Care and Maintenance 59
10. Service Instructions, York Compressors 65
11. Installation 81
12. Stowage of Foods 92
13. Introduction 98
14. Details of Air-Conditioning System 100
15. Interconnection of Systems 109
16. Theory of Air-Conditioning 113
17. Ventilation 121
18. Air Distribution System 124
19. Practical Air-Conditioning of a Submarine 127
20. Inspection Schedule 132
21. Glossary 133
22. Index 136

3-1. Simple heat diagram 8
4-1. Schematic refrigeration cycle 15
4-1a. Graphic diagram of mechanical refrigeration cycle 17
6-1. Mechanical refrigeration cycle 22
6-1a. Diagram of principle of refrigeration 24
6-2. Superheat action in evaporator 27
7-1. Refrigeration piping diagram back of book
7-2. Refrigeration evaporator, typical layout 29
7-3. Compressor, sectional view 30
7-4. Compressor, exploded view 32
7-5. Condenser 35
7-6. Zinc fingers for condenser, showing stages of deterioration 36
7-7. Condenser water pump, exploded view 37
7-8. Condenser water piping arrangement back of book
7-9. Receiver 38
7-10. Thermostatic expansion valve, internal equalizer 39
7-10a. Typical refrigeration control devices 40
7-11. Solenoid valve 41
7-12. Thermostat 42
7-13. Thermo-bulbs 42
7-14. Liquid strainer 44
7-14a. Dehydrator and liquid strainer, York ice machine 45
7-15. Dehydrator 46
7-16. Low- and high-pressure control switch, York ice machine 47
7-17. Low-pressure cutout switch 48
7-18. High-pressure cutout switch 48
7-19. Packless valve 49
7-20. Type Q Navy manifold, exterior 49
7-21. Type Q Navy manifold, cutaway 50
7-22. Freon gage 51
7-23. Ice cube maker 52
7-24. Wardroom refrigerator unit 52
10-1. Enlarged view of crankshaft seal 78
11-1. Halide torch 86
14-1. Air-conditioning piping diagram back of book
14-2. Thermostatic expansion valve, external equalizer 102
14-3. Suction pressure regulating valve 103
14-4. Air-conditioning evaporator 106
14-5. Air-conditioning evaporator, new type 107
16-1. Psychrometric chart 117
16-2. Comfort chart 119
18-1. Air distribution system back of book

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