Typical Drawings That Outside Machinists Must Re Able To Read

Since all outside machinists are required to read blueprints which give locations of holes, sizes of holes, and locations of certain units to be installed, and since this manual is not intended for comprehensive instruction in blueprint reading, the following specimen prints are inserted so that the outside machinist trainee may develop an appreciation of the types of blueprints which he must learn to read as a part of his daily work.

Following the prints are questions pertaining to each print. The questions are typical of information which the outside machinist must be able to obtain readily from blueprints. All the questions may be answered from the prints shown here. Most answers may be found from the specific print under which the question is listed.



Print No. 1
Operating Rods for F.O. Transfer System




The. title of blueprint No. 1, Operating Rods, automatically indicates that the shape of the rod stock is round and not square. For this reason there is no necessity for showing an end view of the rod, on this or on a similar blueprint.

The lengths of the. rods are given as though the blueprint were full length. To avoid confusion, the rod is "broken' at a point between the ends. The "break" is indicated by the symbol shown below: rod alignment symbol

This sort of symbol always means a rod or shaft has been cut and it also shows the round shape of the rod. Such a "break" does not mean that the rod has actually been cut. The use of the symbol indicates the rod between the broken ends is plain, no holes or other cuts, and full size all the way.

"Drill and Ream for 3/8" fitted bolts to suit Coupling Pc V-240" means that V-240, the piece number of the coupling, has been drilled and that the rod must be drilled and reamed to suit the coupling. When reaming for a #6 tapered pin use a #6 tapered reamer. The size drill to use is found from the diameter of the small end of the tapered pin.

"Abt. 15'-0"" means that the rod is about 15'-0" long from end to end or "over all" as it is usually expressed.

"Groove to suit Doran Universal print Pc V-239" means that a groove must be filed or milled in the rod to suit the vole that is drilled in the piece V-239.

The step in the end of any one of the rods shown is milled or hack-sawed and filed to the dimensions given. The ends of the rods should be square with the outside diameter before the measurements are taken.

The letters "F. 0." in the title mean Fuel Oil. The notation "Scale, none" means that the drawing or blueprint is not made to scale. Work to the dimensions. Never measure a blueprint.



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1. What is the diameter of the operating rod stock that is used to make the parts shown?

2. How many "stepped" rod ends are shown?

3. What size reamer is used to ream the taper holes in the rod ends?

4. How many different length operating rods are shown on this blueprint?

5. What does the abbreviation "Univ." mean?

6. Where should one get the information that will decide what size drill is to be used for drilling before reaming the tapered holes?

7. Why is the stepped end of the rod in the top figure on the blueprint reduced to 1-1/8" diameter?

8. Should the grooves in the ends of the rods be filed or drilled?

9. Explain the difference between a universal joint and a coupling.

10. How far is the face of the step from the outside diameter of the rod in the top figure?



Print No. 2
Foundation for Fire & Ballast Pump in the Forward Pump Room




Blueprint No. 2 shows how the several members of a pump foundation are welded to the bulkhead of a ship. It is the job of the outside machinist to lay off' and drill the holes shown.

Note the center line of the pump which extends from and through the Plan of Foundation view to and through the Elevation Looking Outboard view. The letters "centerline" at the upper end of the center line mean "Center Line" on any blueprint. When beginning to lay out the work for any job, always find or locate a center line from the blueprint and then take all other measurements from the center line.

Sometimes the dimensions seem to be missing. Usually the dimensions may be found by adding or subtracting certain dimensions which will be given adjacent to the location of the missing dimension.

For example: Line "centerline" is 6" from the face of the corrugation in the bulkhead. The face of the corrugation in the bulkhead is 15" from the pump "centerline". Therefore the edge represented by line "C" is 21" from the pump "centerline". Other similar dimensions may be found the same way.

"DBE" means "double".
"Cont." means "Continuous."
"FLG" means "flange".
"ab" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"PLT" means "plate".
"RHO" means "bulkhead".
The symbol for "angle" is Angle symbol..
"aa" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"13.5#" means "thirteen and one-half pounds".

NOTE: The "13.5#" refers to a plate which is just thick enough to weigh 13.5 pounds per square foot of area. A piece of this plate ten feet square weighs 1350 pounds.

The notation "Port Side Only" means that the foundation is to be installed on the port side of the ship but that there is no foundation to be installed on the starboard side.



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1. The view at the upper left is marked: "ELEVATION LOOKING OUTBOARD." Examine the blueprint closely and state whether the outboard direction is port or starboard.

2. Looking at the plan of foundation view, state how far the centers of the two large circles are from the forward face of MID. No. 73.

3. What are the diameters of the two large circles in the foundation plan?

4. Are both circles the same diameter?

5. State the center to center distance of the two large circles in the plan of Foundation view.

6. In the elevation Looking Outboard view, how far is the edge marked "A" from the center line of the pump suction?

7. In view, Elevation of Stay, looking aft, how far is edge "B" above center line of stay?

8. What is the center-to-center distance of two 7/8" holes in the elevation of stay view?

9. What weight plate "pc mark aa", is specified for the top of the shelf for the foundation?

10. What is the distance from the top of shelf "E" to the center of the stay shown in the Elevation of Stay Looking Aft?



Title Foundation For F.O. Transfer Pump in Forward Pump Room
Print No. 3




Blueprint No. 3 shows the foundation for a fuel oil transfer pump on the starboard side of the ship. The foundation is welded to the after face of bulkhead No. 77 and rests on the tank top. Longitudinals, numbers 75 and 76 are partly shown in the Elevation Looking Inboard.

The outside machinist lays out the locations for the bolt holes and drills them. Center lines are first located and the centers of the holes are established and center punch marked. The sizes of the holes shown on the blueprint appear to be the same. A close inspections of the figures will show that there are three sizes of holes to be drilled.

Notice that when a group of holes is to be drilled the same size that only one hole is marked but the total number of holes of that size is -indicated at the same place the hole size is given. For example: 4 - 1 1/4" holes means that there are 4 holes in the group and each hole is to be drilled 1 1/4" diameter and the holes are drilled all the way through unless there is a definite dimension given for the depth of the hole.

In addition to abbreviations which were given on previous information sheets, the following are shown on this blueprint.

"B" means "base line".
"af" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".

The notation "1/2" liner" means that dimensions are given to or from the face of a 1/2" thick piece of steel that is to be installed at the given location some time later. Allowance must always be made for such liners or other indicated plates.

"ad" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".


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1. Is the arrow, near the top of Elevation Looking Inboard, pointing forward or aft?

2. State the number of 7/8" holes in the foundation.

3. How many 1-1/4" holes are there in the foundation?

4. What is the distance, center to center, of the 1" holes in the stay?

5. On which side of the ship is the foundation located?

6. State the distance from edge "A" to pump center line.

7. What shape of stock is F. B.-4' x 3/8" add?

S. State the center of hole to center of foundation distance of the 7/8" holes in the plan foundation.

9. How far is the center line of these holes from the pump center line?

10. State the distance from the top of the 1/2" lines, inboard elevation to the base line of the ship.



Title Foundation For Refrigeration & Circulating Water Pump
Pint No. 4




Blueprint No. 4 shows a foundation for a circulating water pump. The blueprint shows the side view, the end view, and the top view of the pump in phantom outline.

The key letters in the small circles are for the guidance of the shipfitter when he is installing the foundation plates and supports. The outside machinist lays out the hole locations and drills them.

Measurements are taken from the ship center line as on other jobs. The pump unit is placed, leveled, and chocked. The hole locations are then found through the holes in the base of the pump unit and worked on the foundation top as they are drilled through the base.

Some additional abbreviations and symbols are used on this blueprint.

"pa" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"pd" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"Inn. Bott." means "inner bottom".
"pb" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"pt" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"pc" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"F.B." means "flat bar".
"Eng. Rm. Fl." means "engine room floor".

The figures"13,", "14", "15", in the upper left corner view are frame numbers.


1. How many holes are shown through the base of the unit that has to be installed on the foundation?

2. State the distance from the center line of the ship to the center line of the pump base.

3. What is the distance from the inner bottom plate to the top of the pump foundation?

4. What is the chock or liner thickness under the pump base?

5. What, size are the holes in the pump base?

6. Does the blueprint call for fitted bolts in the base and foundation?

7. What is the frame number opposite a point about midway between the Pump motor and the pump?

8. Give the center to center distance, both ways, of the bolt holes in the foundation.



Title Foundation For Line Shaft Brake
Print No. 5




Blueprint No. 5 shows the foundation for the line shaft brake. All dimensions are taken from center lines as before.

Study this blueprint carefully. The job is very simple to do. The line shaft brace unit is set on location according to the blueprint measurements given. Chocks have to he fitted and holes drilled for the bolts which hold the unit to the foundation.

There are a few abbreviations and symbols not previously mentioned:

"STDB. SIDE LOOKING INB." means "Starboard Side Looking Inboard.
"fa" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".
"FB" means "flat bar."
"ph" means "identification of plate" or "piece mark of plate".


1. Does the blueprint call for fitted bolts in the two welded side brackets?

2. What size bolt holes are drilled and reamed in the brackets and foundation?

3. On what center line is the foundation set?

4. How far is the center of the brake drum above the base line of the ship?

5. What thickness chock or liner is used under the base of the installation?

6. Which side of the section "Starboard Side Looking Inboard" is forward? N? or O?

7. What is the longest distance, center to center of any two bolt holes in the foundation?

8. What is the shortest distance, center to center of any two bolt holes in the foundation?



Title Foundation For Drain Cooler
Print No. 6




Blueprint No. 6 shows a foundation for a drain cooler. The cooler is supported on two fabricated steel brackets which are welded to frame No. 31. The outside machinist lays out the hole locations and drills them.

All measurements are taken from center lines as before. The unit is placed correctly, chocks are fitted, and the cooler is bolted down in place.

"Boiler Rm. Flat + 26'-0"" means "above base line".

The reference letters "A" and "A" are intended for the shipfitter when he is installing the bracket supports for the cooler. The letters indicate the correct location for the bracket shown in the left-hand view.

"1'-2" D means "one foot and two inches diameter".


1. What size holes are drilled and reamed for the drain cooler pedestals?

2. How many bolt holes are there in one pedestal?

3. What is the distance from frame number 31 to the center line of the drain cooler?

4. What is the thickness of the chock or liner between the pedestal and the foundation?

5. Give the center-to-center distance of the hole centers in the pedestal feet, parallel to frame number 31.

6. State the longest center-to-center distance between any two of the holes in the foundation, measuring parallel to the center line of the cooler.

7. What is the center distance of the cooler from the boiler room flat?

8. Which is the forward side of the plan view? R. or S.?



Title Foundation For 150 Gal Kerosene Tank
Print No. 7




Blueprint No. 7 shows a foundation for a 150-gallon kerosene tank. The tank is installed to rest on three pieces of 2 1/2" pipe 1'-5 5/8" long. The pipes are supported by the flat shown in the view at the right. See section C. Angle clips are placed at suitable intervals around the bottom of the tank on the supporting plate. to secure the tank in position.

A rod around the top of the tank, shown in the top view, holds the top of the tank securely. A plate is welded in the corner formed by frame #9 and the bracket shown in the right-hand view. The bracket extends from frame #9 to frame #10. See section C.

Angle clips are welded to the plate just mentioned and holes for the rod around the top of the tank are drilled in the clips. A nut on either end of the rod clamps the tank tightly in place.

Some abbreviations and symbols not mentioned before are:

"Brkt. N.S." means "bracket on near side".
"longl." means "longitudinal".
"Up Dk." means "upper deck".
"stiffr" means "stiffener".
"L-ab" means "angle identification" or "piece mark of angle bar".
"10'-2" Fr. centerline" means "10'-2" from center line".
"O.D." means "outside diameter"
"L 7 x 4 x 15.8#" means "longitudinal #4 is an angle bar
7" x 4" x 15.8#-
A with a circle around it and an arrow pointing down. means a section taken through this way, looking the way the arrow points
Circle with a line through it. is a symbol for diameter.


1. On Section A what is the diameter of rod holding the kerosene tank?

2. How far is the centerline of Kerosene tank from the centerline of ship?

3. How far is the kerosene tank from #9?

4. To what diameter must the rod be bent to take the tank?

5. What is the distance from the bottom of tank to the base line?

6. Which is the forward side of the Plan View?

7. What is the distance from the rod to the top of tank?

8. What is the distance from the flat to the rod?



Print No. 8 - Title Foundation For Gear Oil Tank in Steering Engine Room




Blueprint No. 8 shows a foundation for a gear oil tank located in the steering engine room. Notice the wording under each view which is intended to show the relationship of the views.

The plate under the tank is supported by pipes which are secured to the steering gear flat.

The tank is held in place by one rod fastened around the middle. There is a nut on either end of the rod to draw it tight through angle clips welded to the bulkhead.

Some additional abbreviations and symbols follow.

"32'5" AB.B" means "33'-5" above base line".
"diameter symbol is a symbol for diameter.
"AMM" means "ammunition".
"O"" means "over all".


1. On which side of the ship is the gear oil tank located?

2. How far is the centerline symbol of tank from the centerline symbol of ship?

3. How far above the steering gear flat is the rod located?

4. To what diameter must the rod be bent to take the?

5. What, is the distance from Fr #9 to the centerline symbol 6. What is the distance from base line to bottom of tank?

7. What is the diameter of the rod?

8. On the sketch "Plan at Top" which is the forward side?



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Shipyard Outside Machinist Terms and Definitions


Abaft--Aft of; farther aft than.

Access Holes--Holes cut in the structure of a ship to permit entering or leaving various compartments.

Accommodation Ladder--A portable ladder or stairway hung over the side of a ship to accommodate people who are boarding from, or disembarking to, small boats or a pier.

Aft--Toward, at, or near the stern.

After--Nearer stern.

Aftermost--Nearest the stern.

After Body--A hull form aft of the midship section.

After Peak--The compartment in the narrow part of the stern, aft of the last watertight bulkhead.

After-Peak Bulkhead--The water tight bulkhead farthest aft.

After Perpendicular--A vertical straight line at, or near, the edge of the rudderpost.

Air hammer--A hammer driven by compressed air for riveting; sometimes called an air gun or "gun".

Air Port--A circular opening or window through the side of the ship, or deck house, to admit light and air.

Amidships---At or near the middle of the ship between stem and stern.

Anchor--A heavy, hook-shaped device for holding a ship at rest in water. The anchor grips the ocean bottom and is fastened to the ship by a chain.

  Angle Clip--A short piece of angle bar.

Angle Collar--A ring made of angle bar.

Anneal--To soften metal by heating and allowing it to cool slowly.

Aperture--The recess in which the propeller is located.

Apron Plate--A small plate at the prow of the ship to stiffen the top of the bulwark.

Assemble--To fit together the small parts of a larger member or unit and make so it complete.

Athwartship--Across the ship at right angles to the centerline.

Auxiliaries--Machinery supplementary to main propulsive units. Awning Deck--A shade deck above another deck.


Ballast--Any weight or weights (usually sea water) used to keep the ship from becoming "top heavy" or to change her trim.

Ballast Tank--Watertight compartment to hold ballast.

Barnacles--Small marine growths that attach themselves in large numbers to the hull of a ship., often greatly retarding its speed.

Battens--Long strips of wood used in the mold loft for fairing lines; also, wooden protective strips in cargo holds; see hatch battens.


Beams--An athwartship member supporting a portion of a deck; also, the width of the ship.

Beam Knee--(See Brackets.)

Below--Below a deck or decks (corresponding to "down stairs").

Bending Rolls--The rolls of a large machine used to give curvature to plates.

Bending Slab--A large floor made up of heavy, perforated, cast-iron slabs arranged in a manner which permits bending frames, angles, etc.

Berth--The place where a ship lies at anchor or at a wharf; a place to sleep; a bunk; also, a specified small section of the hull structure.

Between Decks--The space between any two decks.

Bevel--The angle between the flanges of a frame or other member (When greater than a right angle, open bevel; when less, closed. Also, to chamfer.

Bilge--The curved section between the bottom and the side of a ship; the recess into which all water drains.

Bilge Blocks--Supporting blocks used under the bilge for support during construction or dry-docking.

Bilge Keel--A fore-and-aft member fitted to the outside of the shell plating along the bilge to prevent excessive rolling of the ship.

Bilge Pump--A pump for removing bilge water.

Bilge Strake--The course of plates at the bilge.

Bilge Water--Water (due to leaks, sweat, etc.) that collects in the bottom of the hull.

Bilge Well--A sump to which bilge water drains.

  Binnacle--A case, box, or stand containing a ship's compass, adjusting magnets, and a lamp for use at night.

Bitt--A vertical post to which mooring lines are made fast; a bollard.

Bitumastic--An elastic cement used as a paint to protect steel

Boat Deck--A deck on which life-boats are kept.

Body Plan--A drawing which shows' frame lines in elevation.

Boiler--A container in which water is heated to form steam.

Boiler Chocks--Stay braces which prevent fore-and-aft movement of boilers.

Boiler Foundation--A support for a boiler.

Bollard--A single tie post (See bitt).

Booby Hatch--A watertight covering over a deck opening which is used for a stairway or ladder.

Boom--A long, round, heavy spar, piveted at one end, usually used for handling cargo, etc.

Boom Rest--A support for a boom when it is not in use.

Boom Step--A socket for the end of the boom.

Bosom Piece--A short piece of angle riveted over a butt joint o two angles, a butt strap for angle bars; a splice piece.

Boss--The curved, swelling portion of the ship's hull around the propeller shaft.

Boss Frame--A hull frame which is shaped to clear the propeller shaft tube.,

Boss Plate--A shell plate covering the curved portion of the hull where the propeller shaft passes outboard.

Bow--The forward end of a ship.


Bracket--A triangular plate used to connect rigidly two or more parts, such as a deck beam and a frame, a frame and a margin plate, etc.

Braze--To heat and join by means of hard solder (spelter). This solder may be brass, bronze, or other alloys.

Breakwater--A braced guard plate which prevents solid water from sweeping the decks.

Breast Hook--A triangular-shaped plate extending horizontally across the bow behind the stem, stiffening the stringers and stem.

Bridge, Navigating --The deck from which a ship is navigated.

Bridge Deck--The deck on the superstructure amidships, the top deck of the deckhouse.

Brow--A watershed over an air port; a small, inclined runway to allow passage of trucks over a hatch coaming, or through a bulkhead door, etc.; sometimes portable.

Building Slip--The place where a ship is built; a shipway.

Bulb Angle--An angle shape which is reinforced at one toe.

Bulb Plate--A narrow plate reinforced on one edge.

Bulb Tee--A tee bar with toe of web reinforced.

Bulkhead--A vertical partition corresponding to the wall of a room, extending either athwartships or fore and aft. A steel partition in a ship.

Bulkhead Sluice--A small opening in a watertight bulkhead which can be opened or closed from the deck above.

Bulwark--The side of a ship above the weather deck.

Bull Riveting--Driving rivets by squeezing them with a high-powered

  air or hydraulic machine.

Bunker--A compartment used for the stowage of coal or other fuel.

Buoyancy--Ability to float; lifting power when immersed.

Butt --The joint formed when two parts are placed edge to edge.

Buttock--A distance from center-line determined by the section of the moulded surface with a vertical longitudinal plane.

Butt Strap--A small plate used to connect the two parts of a butt joint by overlapping each; a splice piece.


Camber--The athwartship rise or crown of a deck.

Cant Frame--A frame which is not square to the keel line.

Capstan--A revolving drum with a Vertical axis, used for heaving in lines.

Cargo--The freight carried by a ship.

Cargo Battens--Strips of wood used to keep cargo away from the steel hull.

Cargo Boom--A heavy boom used in handling cargo.

Cargo Hatch--A large opening in a deck which permits the loading of cargo into holds.

Cargo Tort--An opening in a ship's side used in loading and unloading cargo.

Casing--Bulkheads enclosing a portion of a vessel, as the boiler room casing. Also a covering for parts of machinery.

Calk--To make a joint watertight.

Calker---One who calks.

Ceiling--Wood sheathing on the tank. top, sides of a ship, and bulkheads; used to protect cargo.


Center Keelson--(See vertical keel).

Center Line--The middle line of the ship, extending from stem to stern.

Chafing plate--A bent plate used to minimize chafing of ropes, as at hatches.

Chain Locker--A compartment in the forward portion of ship in which anchor chain is stowed.

Chain Pipe--A pipe for passage of anchor chain from deck to chain locker.

Chain Riveting--Two or more rows of rivets spaced so that the rivets in one row are opposite those in an adjacent row.

Chain Stopper--A device which prevents anchor chain from running out. It is moved into position after the anchor has been dropped.

Chamfer--To cut off the sharp edge of a corner. To bevel.

Chart Room--A small room adjacent to the pilothouse in which charts and navigating instruments are located.

Chock--A heavy fitting through which ropes or hawsers are led, saddle or seat of wood or metal.

Chock, Boat--A cradle or support for a lifeboat.

Chock Roller--A chock with a sheave to prevent chafing of ropes.

Cleat--A fitting having two arms or horns around which ropes are made fast. A clip on the frames of a ship used to hold cargo battens in place.

Clinching Pan--A flat plate for clinching nails (Used in the mold loft.)

Coaming--The vertical boundary of a hatch or skylight.

Cofferdam--A narrow vacant space between two bulkheads , a double watertight bulkhead.

  Collar--A flanged band or ring. A welded plate used to close a frame or beam penetration through plating.

Collision Bulkhead--The watertight bulkhead nearest the bow of a ship; forepeak bulkhead.

Companionway--A covered stairway leading downward from an open deck; a series of steps leading from the deck to a cabin or saloon below; also, the space occupied by these steps.

Compartment--A subdivision of a space or a room in a ship.

Corrugated--Having a series of wrinkles or grooves arranged so as to produce stiffness.

Corrugated Bulkheads--Bulkheads with corrugated plating which eliminates the need for many welded stiffeners.

Counter--The overhang of the stern of a ship.

Countersink--To taper a hole for a flush rivet or bolt.

Cowl--The hood-shaped top of a ventilator pipe.

Cradle--A form on which bows, Etc., are assembled; the support in which a ship rests during launching, a launching cradle.


Davit--A crane arm used in handling small boats, lifeboats, stores, gear, etc.

Dead Flat--A portion of a ship's side or bottom where the plating has no curvature; also the midship portion of constant cross section (the parallel middle body).

Dead Rise--The rise or upward slant of the bottom of a ship from the keel to the bilge.

Dead Weight--The total weight of cargo, fuel, water, stores, passengers and crew (and their


effects) which a ship can carry.

Deck--The part of a ship corresponding to the floor of a building.

Deckhouse--A shelter built on deck.

Declivity--The inclination of shipways to provide for launching.

Deep Tank--A deep compartment usually extending from tank top to lower deck.

Derrick--A device for hoisting heavy weights, cargo, etc.

Die--A tool for forming a rivet head (applied to rivet dies) .

Displacement--The total weight of the ship when afloat, including everything onboard (equals weight of water displaced). This total weight is usually expressed in long tons.

Dog- -A small, bent metal fitting used in closing doors, hatch covers, manhole covers, etc-; a bent bar of round iron used in holding shapes on bending slab; any small, flat lug temporarily welded to structure as backing for a wedge.

Dolly Bar--A heavy bar to hold against a rivet to give backing when riveting.

Double Bottom--Compartments at the bottom of a ship between the inner and outer bottoms, used for ballast tanks, water, fuel oil, etc.

Doubling Plate--A plate fitted out side or inside of another to give extra strength or stiffness.

Drag --The amount the stern end of the keel is below the bow end when the ship is afloat, but not on an even keel.

Draft--The vertical distance from the lowest point of the ship in the water to water level.

  Drift pin--A small tapered tool used in aligning holes in adjacent members.

Drop Strake--A strake discontinued near the bow or stern.


Erecting--The process of hoisting into place and bolting the various parts of a ship's hull.

Even Keel--A ship is said to be on an even keel when the keel is level, that is parallel to the surface of the water.

Expansion trunk--The raised portion of tank used on some oil tankers to allow for the expansion of oil when temperature rises.

Eye- -The large hole in the stern frame which is bored out to take the stern tube liner.

Eye Bolt--A bolt the head of which is in the form of a ring or eye.


Fabricate--To make raw material ready for assembly or erection.

Face Plate--A narrow, stiffening plate welded along the edge of any web frame or stiffener.

Fairing or Fairing Up--Correctly lining up the structural members of a ship assembling the parts of a ship so that they will be fair, that is, without kinks, bumps, or waves; bringing rivet holes into alignment.

Fair-lead--A fitting through which or over which a rope, line, etc., may be led so as to change its direction without excessive friction.

Fair water--Plate or casting used to preserve streamline flow past hull structure or propeller hub.


Fathom--Six feet.

Fathometer--A device to measure the depth of water by timing the travel of a sound wave from the ship to the ocean bottom and return.

Faying Surface--The contact surface between two adjoining parts.

Fender--A portable device made of wood or rope to protect a ship when bumping a pier; permanently installed dock extension which protects the hull of a ship in docking.

Fidley--Casing top over the boiler room.

Fidley Hatch--A hatch over the boiler room.

Flagstaff--Flagpole at the stern of the ship; ensign staff.

Flange--A part of a plate or shape at, or nearly at, right angles to the main part; to bend over to form an angle.

Flare--The sudden widening of the shell at the top near the bow.

Flat--A small partial deck (built level) without curvature.

Floor--The lower portion of a transverse frame, usually a vertical plate extending from center line to bilge, and from inner to outer arid bottom.

Fore and Aft--In line with the length of the ship, longitudinally.

Fore-and-Aft Gangway--A walkway between deckhouses at or near the center line of the ship.

Fore Body--A hull form forward of the midship section.

Forecastle--The forward, upper portion of the hull. It is sometimes used as the crew's quarters.

Forefoot--The part of the keel which curves and rises to meet the stem.

  Forepeak--The large compartment or I tank in the lower part of the bow of the ship.

Forepeak Bulkhead--Collision bulkhead; bulkhead nearest bow.

Forging--Steel worked to special shape by hammering while red hot.

Forward--Near, at, or toward, the bow of the ship.

Forward Perpendicular--A vertical line through the intersection of the stem with the load water line.

Foundations--Supports for boilers, engines, and auxiliary machinery.

Foundations, Auxiliary--Supports for small machinery, such as winches, condensers, heaters, etc.

Frames--Ribs forming the skeleton of a ship.

Frames Continuous--Frames combining side frames and floors.

Frame, Side--Inside frames a ship connection to the shell plating.

Frame Spacing--The fore-and-aft distance between adjacent. frames.

Frame, Web--A heavy side or continuous frame, made with web plate for extra stiffness.

Freeboard--The vertical distance from the upper watertight deck to water line, when the ship is fully loaded.

Freeboard Mark-- (See Plimsoll mark).

Freeing Port--A hole through the bulwark to provide ready drainage of water from the deck.

Funnel--A smokestack of a vessel.

Furnace--A heater or large forge for heating plates or shapes for bending; to bend by heating in furnace.




Galley--A cooking room or kitchen.

Galley Dresser--A cook's work table.

Galvanizing--Coating metal parts with zinc for protection from rust.

Gangway--A passageway, a ladder, or other means of boarding a ship.

Garboard Strake--The course of plates next to the keel of a ship.

Gasket--Packing of canvas composition, or other material, used in making a tight joint.

Girder--Fore-and-aft stiffening member for deck or bottom shell.

Girth--The transverse distance around the midship section.

Grab Rods--Bent rods welded to bulkheads or the ship's side to form a ladder.

Grating--Light platform or walking built up of metal bars, used for access to machinery.

Grommet--A soft ring used under a nut or bolthead to maintain watertightness.

Gross Tonnage--A figure obtained by dividing the total volume of the ship, in cubic feet, by 100 .

Ground. Ways--Timbers secured to the ground under the hull on each side of the keel. When the ship is launched, it slides down the ground ways into the water.

Gudgeons--The bosses on the stern post drillingon which the rudder swings.

Gunwale--The junction of the deck and the shell at the top of the sheer strake.

Gunwale Bar--Angle iron which connects stringer plate and shell plates. (Riveted work.)

  Gyrocompass--A mechanical compass operated by means of a gyroscope. This compass indicates true north rather than magnetic north.

Gyro Repeater--An apparatus to show the reading of the gyrocompass at a distance from the main gyroscope equipment.


Hatch--An opening in a deck for loading or unloading cargo, etc.

Hatch Battens--Flat bars which are wedged against hatch coamings to secure tarpaulins.

Hatch Beam--A portable beam used to support wooden hatch covers

Hawse Pipe--Casting, or castings, through the deck and the side of the ship at the bow for passage of anchor chain.

Hawser--A large rope used for towing and mooring.

Heeling--The inclination of a vessel to one side.

Hogging--Straining of the ship which tends to make the bow and stern lower than the middle portion.

Hold--The inside of a hull; cargo space.

Hold Beams--Structural members placed in a hold, similar to deck beams, but having no plating or planking on them.

Holder-On--One who "backs up" or "holds on" the head of a rivet while the point is being "driven", or upset.

Horn--To line or square up; also, part of a cleat.

Hull --The body of a ship, including shell plating, framing docks, and bulkheads.


I-Beam--A structural shape with a cross section resembling the letter


Inboard--Inside of the ship; toward or nearer the center line.

Inboard Profile--A drawing of the longitudinal section at center line of ship.

Inner Bottom--Plating forming the upper surface of the double bottom. Also called tank top.

Inner Shell--A plated surface or "shell" inside the outer shell plating, used as additional protection in case of collision or other accidents. The space between the inner and outer shells is often used as a storage space for liquid ballast or cargo.

Inserted Packing--Canvas strips soaked with red lead and placed between connections that cannot be calked successfully otherwise; stop waters.

Intercostal--Made in separate parts between frames, beams, etc. ; the opposite of continuous. (Floors are continuous; longitudinal girders are intercostal inmost cargo vessels.)

Isherwood System--A system of building ships in which the main framing is longitudinal (or fore-and-aft) , instead of transverse as in ordinary ships.


Jack Staff--A flagstaff at the bow of a ship.

Joggle--An abrupt bend or offset in a plate, bar, or frame to eliminate the use of liners.


Keel--The principal fore-and-aft-member of a ship's frame. The keel runs along the bottom, connects the stem and helps to support the frames of the ship which are attached to it .

  Keel-Blocks--Heavy Blocks which support the keel of the ship during construction.

Keel, Flat--The bottom-shell strake on the center line of the ship.

Keelson, Side--A fore-and-aft member similar to the vertical keel and placed on each side of it.

Keel, Vertical--Vertical plate used as reinforcement for the keel, often called center keelson.

King Post--A stub mast, outboard from the center line, used to carry cargo booms; kingposts often serve as ventilators.

Knot--A tie in a line; a nautical mile (about one and one seventh statute miles.)

Knuckle--A sharp bend in a plate or shape.

Knuckle Plate--A plate bent to form a knuckle.


Ladder--Inclined steps, used aboard ship instead of "stairs".

Lap--A joint in which one part overlaps the other, thus avoiding the use of a butt strap; also, the amount of overlap.

Launching--The operation of placing a hull in the water by allowing it to slide down on greased skids called launching ways.

Laying Out--Marking plates or shapes for shearing, punching, etc.

Lazarette--A space between decks used as a storeroom.

Length Between Perpendiculars--The length of a ship measured from the forward perpendicular to the after perpendicular.


Length Over All--The length of a ship measured from the extreme forward end to the aftermost point of the stern.

Lift--To make a template from measurements taken from the job.

Lightening Hole--A hole cut in a member to reduce its weight.

Limber Hole--A small hole cut in a plate near the bottom to permit the passage of water.

Liner--A flat or tapered strip of steel placed under a plate or shape to bring the member in line with another which it overlaps. A filler.

Lines--The form of a ship as represented by its moulded surface.

List--To lean over to one side. Load Water Line--The Line of the surface of the water on a ship when it is loaded to the designed draft.

Loftsman--A mold-loft worker who lays down ship lines and makes templates.

Longitudinal--A shell, deck, or bulkhead Stiffener running fore and aft.

Lug pad--A projection on deck with a hole for fastening a block for a lead.


Magnetic Compass--A device which indicates the direction of magnetic north by means of a magnetized needle (or needles) which is attracted towards the Earth's magnetic pole. Magnetic north is not to be confused with true or geographical north.

Main Deck--Usually the deck immediately below the shelter or weather deck.

Manhole--A hole cut large enough for a man to go through into

  a compartment, tank, etc.

Margin Plate--The outboard row of inner-bottom plating that joins the shell plating at the bilge.

Marker--A brass pipe dipped into paint for marking rivet holes. Marlinespike--A pointed, tapering tool which is used in separating strands of rope or cable in splicing.

Mast--A long, heavy spar, placed nearly vertical on the center line of a ship.

Mess Room--A dining room for officers or crew.

Midship--At or near the middle point of the length of a ship.

Midship section--A vertical cross section through the ship, midway between the forward and after perpendiculars.

Mold Loft--A shed or building with a large, smooth floor on which the lines of a ship can be drawn to full scale.

Mooring--Securing a ship in position by several lines or cables so that it cannot move or swing; anchoring.

Mooring Pipe--A casting which prevents chafing of mooring lines that pass through bulwark plating.

Mold (or Mould)--A light pattern of a part of a ship; usually made of thin wood or paper. It is also called a template.


Net Tonnage--A figure obtained by making a deduction from the gross tonnage for space not available for carrying cargo.


Oakum--Untwisted fibres of old rope treated with a composition


of resin and pitch. It is used to fill the seams of wooden decks.

Offset--To move out of line or Position.

Offsets--A table of moulded dimensions for water lines, decks, etc.

Oiltight--Sealed by welding or calking to prevent oil leakage. (Closer rivet spacing is required than for water tight work.)

Old Man--A rig for holding a drilling machine.

On Board--On or in the ship.

On Deck--On the upper deck; in the open air.

Outboard--Away from the center line, toward the side of a ship.

Overboard--Outside; over the side of a ship; into the water.

Overhang--That portion of the bow or stern of a ship that projects over the water beyond the water line.

Oxter Plate--Bent shell plate which fits around the upper part of the sternpost; also called tuck plate.


Packing--Material which is placed between plates or shapes to make them watertight; wooden blocks and wedges which support a ship on the sliding ways; spacers.

Pad Eye--An eye located on deck for fastening cables; on the hull, and attachment for hanging a block and fall for lifting propeller or rudder.

Palm--Flattened top portion of rudderstock (for bolted connection); also, a flat surface at the end of a strut or stanchion.

  Panting--An in-and-out movement of plating; to pulsate or throb. Panting may be caused by the lift and fall of a ship in a seaway, or by engine vibration.

Peak--A narrow compartment at either end of a vessel.

Pelorus--An instrument used for taking sights; similar to a compass, but without magnetic needles.

Pillar--A vertical member or column which provides support to a deck girder. (It is also termed a stanchion.)

Pilothouse--A wheelhouse; an enclosed place which shelters the main steering wheel, controls, engine-room telegraph, etc.

Pintle--A pin on which a rudder hinges.

Pitch--Spacing; as of rivets or gear teeth.

Planking--Wood covering for decks, etc.

Plating--The plates of a hull, a deck, a bulkhead, etc.

Plimsoll Mark--A mark placed on the side of the ship to indicate the maximum allowable draft.

Pontoon Hatch Cover--A steel, box-shaped member sometimes used in place of hatch beams to close in a cargo hatch.

Poop--The after, upper portion of the hull, often containing the steering gear.

Poop Deck,-The first deck above the shelter deck at the after end of a vessel.

Port--A harbor; an opening in the side of a ship; the left-hand side of a ship (as the observe looks toward the bow.)

Porthole--A circular opening in the side of the ship. (See port.)


Profile--A side elevation of a ship's form.

Propeller--A rotating device which drives a ship through the water.

Propeller Post--The forward post of the stern frame, which is bored for the propeller shaft.

Propeller Shaft--Rotating bar by means of which the engine turns the propeller.


Quarters--Living or sleeping rooms.


Rabbet--A depression or offset in an edge of material designed to receive some other adjoining part; as for example, the rabbet in the stem to take the shell plating.

Rail--The upper rounded edge of the bulwarks.

Rake--The aft slope of a mast, kingpost, or stack.

Reaming--Enlarging a rivet hole by means of a revolving, cylindrical, slightly tapered tool with cutting edges running along its sides.

Reverse Frame--An angle bar or other shape riveted to the inner edge of a transverse frame as reinforcement.

Ribband--A fore-and-aft wooden strip or heavy batten which is used temporarily to align the transverse frames after erection.

Rigging--Ropes, wire ropes, lashings, masts, booms, etc.; also, the handling and placing of heavy weights and machinery on board the ship.

Rivet--A short steel bolt used to fasten two or more members together by passing the shank through a hole in each piece and then hammering or pressing

  the plain end while red hot so as to make a second head.

Roll --To impart curvature to a plate; also, the motion of the ship from side to side, alternately raising and lowering each side of the deck.

Roller Chock-- (See Chock Roller.)

Rose Box--A screen or strainer placed around the end of a bilge suction pipe.

Rudder--A flat structure of wood or metal attached upright to the sternpost (or in single-screw vessels, to the rudder-post) of a vessel by hinges or pintles and gudgeons, so that it can be turned, as by a tiller, causing the head of the vessel to turn in the same direction because of the resistance offered to the water by the rudder.

Rudderpost--The after post of the stern frame. This vertical post supports the rudder and is also called the sternpost.

Rudder Stock--The shank of the rudder which extends through the shell to the steering engine.

Rudder Stop--A lug to limit the swing of the rudder.


Sagging--A straining of the ship which tends to make the middle portion lower than the bow and stern.

Samson Post--A heavy, vertical post which supports cargo booms; king post.

Scantlings--The dimensions of various shapes.

Scarf--To thin out or taper a corner or edge of a piece of material to make a lap joint. A joint in a stem, bar keel, or stern frame.


Screen Bulkhead--A bulkhead usually placed between the engine room and the boiler room. This bulkhead is fireproof, dustproof, and gastight.

Scupper--A deck drain.

Scupper Pipe--A pipe which drains water from scuppers through the side of a ship.

Scuttle--A very small hatch; a manhole.

Scuttle Butt--A container for drinking water.

Sea Chest--A compartment through which sea water is admitted or discharged.

Seam--A riveted or welded, plate-edge connection. A riveted seam overlaps; a welded seam may or may not overlap.

Set--Metal mold or template for use on bending slab.

Set Iron--A bar of soft iron used on bending slab to give shape of frames.

Shaft Alley--A casing (large enough in which to walk) covering the propeller shaft and extending from engine room to after peak.

Shaft Tunnel--(See Shaft Alley.)

Shape--A bar of constant cross section, such as' a channel, T-bar, angle bar, etc.; also, to impart curvature to a plate or other member.

Shear Line--A line at which a shearing cut is to be made.

Shears--A large machine for cutting plates and shapes.

Sheer--Curvature of deck in a fore-and-aft direction as seen in profile (See Part I- Information Sheet 4.)

Sheer Plan--A side elevation of a ship's form; a profile.

Sheer Strake--The top full course of side shell plating.

  Shell Expansion--A plan showing details of all shell plating and shell longitudinals (Longitudinal would appear only on tankers.)

Shell Landings--Point on the frames where the edges of shell plates are to be located.

Shell Plating--The plates forming the outer skin of the hull.

Shelter Deck--A continuous, superstructure deck above the freeboard deck. Shore--A temporary brace or prop.

Sight Edges--Visible edges of plating (outside shell and above decks.)

Skeg--The lower portion of a stern frame which projects forward, is level with the ship bottom, and is welded to the keel.

Skylight--An opening in a deck to give air and light to the compartment below it.

Sliding Way--That part of the launching way which moves with the ship when it is launched.

Slop Chute--Chute for dumping garbage overboard.

Sounding Pipe--A vertical pipe in an oil or water tank by means of which the depth of liquid in the tank can be measured.

Spar--A long, round member, such) as a mast or a boom; part of the rigging.

Stability--The tendency of a ship to remain upright.

Staging--Planks or scaffolding from which shipbuilders work on the sides or under the decks of a ship.

Stanchion--A piller or upright post for supporting decks, etc.

Stapling--Collars, forged from angle bars, which fit around


continuous members passing through bulkheads or decks, to insure watertightness.

Starboard--The right-hand side of a ship, as the observer looks from aft forward.

Stay--A guy line.

Stealer--A right extending into an adjoining strake, as at the end of a drop strake.

Steering Gear--The apparatus for controlling the rudder and steering the ship.

Stem--The forging, casting, or plating forming the extreme bow of the ship and extending from the keel to the fore-castle deck.

Step--To set in place (as applied to a mast); also, a socket for the end of a mast; a support for the fixed or "hinged" end of a boom.

Stern--The after or rear end of the ship.

Stern Frame--A large casting or forging attached to the after end of the hull to form the ship's stern. It includes rudderpost, propeller post, and aperture for the propeller.

Stern Tube--A long bushing or bearing through the stern to support the end of the propeller shaft.

Stiffener--An angle bar, T-bar, channel, etc., used to stiffen the plating of a bulk-head or other member.

Stool;--A support for a propeller shaft bearing in the shaft alley. A foundation, etc.

Stop Water--Canvas and red lead, or other material, fitted between two metal parts to make a watertight joint.

Stowage--A support or fastening for any gear, as an anchor stowage or a boat stowage.

  Strake-- A fore-and-aft course or row, of shell or other plating.

Stringer--A fore-and-aft member used to give longitudinal strength. Depending on location, these are called hold stringers, bilge stringers, side stringers, etc.

Stringer, Deck--The strake of deck plating which contacts the shell.

Stringer Plate--A deck plate at the outboard edge of the deck connected to the shell of a ship with an angle or a welded joint.

Strongback--A supporting girder for a hatch cover; a rig used in straightening bent plates; a bar for locking cargo ports.

Strut--A support for a propeller tail shaft (used on ships with more than one propeller)

Superstructure--Deck houses, etc., which are located above the shelter deck.

Swash Plate--A baffle plate in a tank which prevents excessive surging of a liquid.


Tail Shaft--A short section of the propeller shaft extending through the stern tube and carrying the propeller.

Tank Top--The plating over the double bottom.

Tarpaulin--A waterproof canvas used for covering for hatches.

Taut--Drawn tightly, i.e., "stretch a line taut."

Tee-Bar--A structural shape with cross section resembling the letter T.

Telegraph--A mechanically or electrically operated means of signalling from the bridge to the engine room, etc.


Template--A mold or pattern.

Thrust Bearing--A bearing or block to resist end thrust. A bearing on the propeller line shaft which relieves the engine from the driving force of the propeller.

Thwart--A seat in a lifeboat.

Tiller--An arm attached to the rudder head for operating the rudder.

Transom--The main frame at the rudderstock (cant frames usually radiate from the transom frame).

Transverse--Athwartships; across the ship; in a port and Starboard direction.

Transverse Frames--Athwartship members forming the "ribs" of the ship.

Trim--To shift ballast; to cause a ship to change its position in the water; drag.

Trunk--A small casing passing through a deck, such as is used for ladders or ventilation.

Tumble Home--The inboard slant of a ship's side above the bilge.


Uptake--The connection between the boilers and the smokestack.


Vertical Keel--A row of vertical plates extending along the center of the first plate keel. It is sometimes called the center keelson.

Voice Tube--A large speaking tube.


Water Line--Any one of certain lines of a ship parallel with (and at various heights above) the base line. In half-breadth plans the water lines are smooth curves

  showing the shape of the ship; in profile plans they are projected as straight lines.

Watertight--So riveted, calked, or welded as to prevent the passage of water.

Waterway--A narrow passage along the edge of a deck for drainage. A gutter.

Ways--Timbers on which a ship is built and from which it is launched into the water. (See Launching.)

Weather Deck--A deck exposed to the weather.

Web--A thin, stiffening member of some steel shapes, such as the connecting plate between the two legs of a channel or the connecting web of an I-beam.

Web Frame--A frame with a deep web.

Welding--Fusing together two or more members with an electric arc or by other means.

Well--A cofferdam or a sump in the double bottom.

Wheel--A nickname for the propeller; steering gear control.

Winch--A small hoisting engine used in pulling lines or handling cargo.

Windlass--A machine used to hoist the anchors by winding in the anchor chain.

Wind Scoop--A device used to divert air into a compartment of the ship.


Zee-Bar--A structural shape with a cross section resembling the letter Z.

Zigzag Riveting--Two or more rows of rivets spaced so that the rivets of the row are offset from these in the next row.




Abbreviations Used by Shipbuilders

AE--After end (rear or stern)
A.P.--After Peak
A.P.--After perpendicular
B.A.--Bulb angle
baseline symbol--Base line
3.M.--Bolted manhole cover plate
B/M--Bill of material
[--Channel or channels
CL or centerline symbol--Center line
CSK--Countersink holes
CSK-OS--Countersink other side
C. to C.--Center to center
C.R.C.--Closed roller chock
C.T.C.--Closed towing chock
C.V.K.--Center vertical keel
D or DIAM--Diameter
D or DK--Deck
DN or DWN--Down
E.M.--Expanded metal
E.R.--Engine room
finish symble --Finish
F.B.--Flat bar
F.D.-Blower--Forced draft blower
  FDK--Forecastle deck
FE--Forward end (front or bow)
F.K.--Flat keel
F.D.--Fuel oil
FOR'D or FWD--Forward
F.P.--Forepeak or forward
F.P.--Flanged plate
F.W.--Fresh water
H-Hull or H--Beam
H.P.--High pressure or horse-blower
H.R.--Half round
I--"I" beam
I.D.--Inside diameter
KP--King post
L--Angle, locker, length, or longitudinal
L.B.P.--Length between perpendiculars
LBS or #--pounds
L.C.A.--Length over all
L. or LONG--Longitudinal
L.P.--Low pressure
LUB OIL--Lubricating oil
L.W.L.--Load water line
M.L.--Molded (or Moulded) line
MLD--Molded (or Moulded) line
M.P.--Mooring pipe
NO--CSK--No countersink
N or #--Number

O.C.--Open chock
O.D.--Outside diameter
OPP--Opposite side
O.S.--Other side
O.T.H.--Oiltight hatch
P.C.-- Pitch circle
PDK--Poop deck
PLT or plate symbol--Plate
PM--Pitch mark, check mark, or spot
R or RAD--Radius
R.C.--Roller chock
R.O.T.M.H.--Raised oiltight manhole
R.P.M.--Revolutions per minute
S or STBD--Starboard
S.C.DR.--Screen door
SDK--Shelter deck
$--Shear or seam
S.N.W.T.--Steel non-watertight
S.P.--Shell plate
S.W.T.--Steel watertight
T--"T" bar
T.C.--Towing chock
T.S.--This side
T.S.U.--This side up
T.T.--Tank top
UDK--Upper deck
V.K.--Vertical keel
V.L.--Vertical ladder
W.C.--Water closet
WL--Water line
W.R.--Wardrobe or washroom
W.T.M.H.--Watertight manhold
Z--"Z" bar

midship symbol-Midship section




Dimensions of Standard Iron and Steel Pipe

I - Nominal Inside
A - Actual Inside
B- Actual Outside
N- No. of Threads Per Inch
C - Length of Effective Thread
D- Length of Normal Engagement by Hand
  E - Pitch Diameter at Gaging Notch

F - Pitch Diameter at Small End of Thread

G - Root Diameter at Small End of Thread

1/8 0.269 0.405 27 0.264 0.18 0.3748 0.3635 0.334
1/4 0.364 0.540 18 0.402 0.20 0.4899 0.4774 0.433
3/8 0.493 0.675 18 0.408 0.24 0.6270 0.6120 0.568
1/2 0.622 0.840 14 0.534 0.32 0.7784 0.7584 0.701
3/4 0.824 1.050 14 0.548 0.34 0.9889 0.9677 0.911
1 1.049 1.315 11 1/2 0.683 0.40 1.2386 1.2136 1.144
1-1/4 1/380 1/660 11 1/2 0.707 0.42 1.5834 1.5571 1.488
1-1/2 1.610 1.900 11 1/2 0.724 0.42 1.8223 1.7961 1.727
2 2.067 2.375 11 1/2 0.757 0.44 2.2963 2.2690 2.199
2-1/2 2.469 2.875 8 1.138 0.68 2.7622 2.7195 2.620
3 3.068 3.500 8 1.200 0.77 3.3885 3.3406 3.241
3-1/2 3.548 4.000 8 1.250 0.82 3.8888 3.8375 3.738
4 4.026 4.500 8 1.300 0.84 4.3871 4.3344 4.234
4-1/2 4.506 5.000 8 1.350 0.88 4.8859 4.8313 4.731
5 5.047 5.563 8 1.406 0.94 5.4493 5.3907 5.291
6 6.065 6.625 8 1.513 0.96 6.5060 6.4461 6.346
7 7.023 7.625 8 1.613 1.00 7.5023 7.4398 7.340
8 7.981 8.625 8 1.713 1.06 8.5000 8.4336 8.334
9 8.941 9.625 8 1.813 1.13 9.4980 9.4273 9.327
10 10.020 10.750 8 1.925 1.21 10.6209 10.5453 10.445
11 11.000 11.750 8 2.025 1.29 11.6194 11.5391 11.439
12 12.000 12.750 8 2.125 1.36 12.6178 12.5328 12.433



Using The Sag Table

The sag table given on page 297 is applicable in all cases where the target stands for supporting the tight line are spaced 10 feet apart. Where the total length of the tight line exceeds a distance which can be equally divided by 10 it is permissible to find the center between the two extreme tight line supports and to work both ways from the center for the location of the target stands.

The two end distances may be slightly more or less than 10 feet. For example: The total distance maybe 172 feet from the extreme supports of the tight line. Working from the center both ways gives fifteen spaces exactly 10 feet apart. The two end spaces will be eleven feet. The 170 FT. horizontal row of figures in the table will be used and the sag blocks will be placed on the target stands in the relative positions given in the table.

The sag in the tight line for eleven feet at each end is .01546 or .0014 more than in ten feet. A .0015 shim may be placed under each sag block in every target which will support the tight line as close as necessary for all practical purposes.

The example given above illustrates the procedure only in an emergency. Usually the target stands can be placed to have 10' between centers. Sometimes the last target stand may have to be placed a few feet further along than is required to obtain a measurement which is a multiple of 10 feet between the two extreme target stands.

When the distance is a multiple of ten feet refer to the sag table. Assuming that this length is 110 feet the horizontal line in the table which is marked 110 FT. is the line to use.

Ten sag blocks are required. The two outer sag blocks are 3/32" thick. The next two sag blocks are 11/64" thick. The third pair of sag blocks measures 7/32"; the next pair measures 1/4"; and finally the two center blocks measure 9/32".

The same size wire, .018, must be used at all times in connection with the figures given in this table. The same weight, 27-3/4 lbs. must also be used. It is desirable to use a 3/8" cord for the weight. A heavier cord is likely to be a little stiff and also adds slightly to the weight.


Table of Sags For No. 7 Music Wire When Used On Reel Made From Acc. Drawings.
Diam. Drum 3 1/2 inch
Diram. Pully 7 inch (Pitch Diam. Cord)
Weight Used 27-3/4#
Diam. Cord 3/8 inch
Diam. Wire .018 inch
Amt. Wire On Reel = One Coil
John Roebling Son Co.
High Grade C.S. Music


This Page Blank.




Adjustable wrench 79, 80
Adjusting screw in use 236
Air cooler fan,
  size of 199
  speed of 199
Air cooler motor and fan 200
Air hose 55
Air motor 55
Aligning a motor shaft 131
Aligning coupling faces 134
Aligning flange diameters 135
  affects of temperature on 131
  re-checking 131
  re-checking after launching 131
American standard screw threads 60, 63
Bailey feed water regulator 205
Bushing guide for drilling 53
  hermaphrodite 24
  pocket slide 24
  setting 24
  use of inside 23
  use of outside 24
Calking tools 82
Center head 76
Center punch,
  "mushroom" 36
  prick punch 37
Chalk line 83
Chalk line,
  purpose of 122
Chamfered corner 70
"Chasing a thread" 62
Checking a chock fit 96
Checking alignment with indicator 135
Checking a valve seat 116
Checking faces with "feelers" 135
Checking foundation top 235
Checking spacing between rotor and stator 197
Checking steel tape for accuracy 16
  fitting 93,95
  land side of 93
  location of 93
  measuring for 94,95
  pedestal side of 93
  purpose of 92
  safety, when fitting 93
Chock sheet, use of 94
Cold chisel,
  diamond 38
  flat 38
  gouge 38
  roundnose 28
  safe use of 39
  tempered 39
Combination square 76
Control columns 243
Corner machine drilling 55
Cutting gasket holes 100
Cutting keyways 74
Decimal equivalent table 35
  adding and subtracting 30
  division of 31

Decimals, Cont'd
  multiplication of 31
  placing the point in 32
  problems with 33
Declivity board,
  leveling a foundation with 120
  plumbing a bulkhead with 121
  purpose of 119
Deck stands,
  installed 128
  location of 125,126,127
  purpose of 125
  ship's deck curve on 126
Diesel engine,
  "bluing" the crank shaft 148,152
  connecting rod assembly 147
  connecting rod scraping position 148
  journal bottom dead center 150
  journal top dead center 150
  lead card 152
  placing bearing lead wires 150,151
  pulling up connecting rod bottom end 151
  relieving bearing horns 150
  scraping bearings and high spots 149
  setting on scale 28
  sizes and styles of 24
Docking plugs 250
Dope, thread and gasket 99
Drift punch 85
Drifts 83
  cutting speeds 44
  "drawing" a drill 43
  drill sizes 43
  flat bottom holes 44
  locating a hole 43
  pilot hole 43
Drilling a foundation 52
Drilling chocks 96
"Drilling out" a broken stud 67
  straight shank 45
  taper shank 45
  taper sleeve 46
  Twist, use of 41
  care of 42
  feeds of 41
  grinding 42
  lubrication of 42
  types of 41
Establishing a center line 123
Faulty valve fits 111
Fifty foot tape, use of 15,16,17
  care of 73
  file cuts and uses of 72
  types and sizes of 70,71,72
Flexible couplings 132
Folding rule 17
Follow-up-control 214
Fox wedges 82
  asbestos sheet 98
  flexitallic 98
  metallic 98
  use of 98
Gate valve, details of 115
General arrangement of a ship 9,11
Gib key 74
Globe valve,
  details of 114
  direction of flow in 117
  grinding paste, use of 114
  valve grinding spring for 115
Globe valve, re-assembling 110
Grinding wheels 91
  lamp wicking for 104
  use of 104
Grooved valve seat 110
Hack saw 78
Hack sawing 77
Hand-steering mechanism 239

Hand tap sets,
  bottom tap 62
  plug tap 61
  taper tap 61
  working with 62
Hand threading dies 63,64
  explosions and fire 3
  fuel line 3
  hatches 4
  hot water line 4
  lifting heavy loads 4
  manhole 4
  shackles and clamps 5
  steam 4
  using a set hammer 5
  using eye bolts 5
  working on boilers 5
Hele-shaw hand-steering pump 229,232,233,240
Horizontal duplex pump 128
Horizontal duplex pump,
  pump overhauling job for 142
  pump piston rod and details 142
Horizontal duplex pump, leveling a 129
Installing a dovetail gasket 103
Jack screws, use of 94
Jacking screws in use 236
Key shapes 74
Key sizes 75
Knife 78
Laying off locations 124
Laying out a dovetail gasket 103
Laying out a ring gasket 101
Level 78
Leveling units with winches 133
Line shaft assembly 172
Line shaft, position of 171
Locating a deck stand center 122
Location of shops 6
Locking propeller and line shaft before launching 253
Locking the rudder for launching 250
Machinists's hammer,
  safety when using 36
  use of 36
Main suction valve,
  fitting flanges for 162
  installed 161
  purpose of 161
Measuring with six inch scale 18,19
Mechanic's scale,
  graduations on 13,14,15
  measuring problems 21,22
  reading measurements with 13
  scale divisions on 13
  six inch 18
  standard measure 12
  capacity of 28
  inside and outside 28
  names of parts of 29
  problems in setting 35
  reading the 28
Monkey wrench 80
Mono-chest valve assembly 143
Obtaining tools from stores 6
Open end wrenches,
  care of 40
  determining nut sizes for 40
Operating rods,
  correctly installed 157
  details of 156
  purpose of 153
  stepped joint 154
  straight off-set 153
  typical installation of 155
Order of pump or turbine setting 132

Overboard spools,
  checking position of 166
  installation of 164
  locating 165
  purpose of 163
  compressed paper 67
  sheetsteam 97
  special material for 97
  types of 97
Packing Hooks,
  screw 84
  straight 84
Pilot hole drilling 53
Pipe threads 62
Piston rod motion 149
Plain key 74
Pliers 81
Plumb bob 79
Portable boring bar,
  a horizontal 184
  a vertical 182
  assembly of a 180,184
  centering a 181,183
  diameter of a 179
  locating a 180,182
  setting up a 182
  supports for a 181
Portable grinder, safety when using 92
  aligning the stator for 196,197
  lock nut for a 247
  placing on tailshaft 147
  typical example of a 246
Propulsion motor
  aligning the stator for 196,197
  fitting chocks for 194,195
  insulating bearing for 195,196
  setting the rotor for 194
Propeller tail shaft 246
Protractor 76
  air machine 51
  corner air drilling machine 52
Reaming, Cont'd
  parallel holes 50
  tapered holes 51
  tapered pin, standard for 51
  "through holes" 53
  care of 50
  fluted 48
  hand 49
  hand expansion 49
  purpose of 47
  rose 48
  shell 48
  taper 49
Red lead putty 99
Reduction gear and pump setting 130
Removing a stud 66,67
Removing valve bonnet 110
Re-tapping for a stud 68,69
Rounded corner 70
Rudder post opening 171
Rudder stock,
  brake and lever for 340,144
  installing the 224, 226
  health 3
  physical requirements 3
Sag blocks 176
  bullnose 83
  flat 83
  straight 84
  three cornered 83
Scriber 78
Screwdriver blade 70
Sealing propeller lock nut 248
Securing the rudder by welding before launching 252
Ship terms and locations 9,10
Six foot tape 15
Smooth-on 99
Socket wrench 85,86
Square thread 63
Steam boiler,
  description of 201
  foundation for 203,204
Steam pump 139
Steam pump,
  adjusting valve slide rods in 139

Steam pump, Cont'd
  checking valve slide rods for fit in 139
  front section detail of 138
  liquid end of 137,146
  steam end of 137,145
Steam pump size 136
Steam pump valve slide adjustment 140
Steering gear,
  checking installation for 231,235
  control 240,242
  installing rams and cylinders for 225,228
  purpose of 223
Stern frame 171,179
Stern frame eye,
  boring a 184
  checking diameter of 185,186
  finish cut in a 187
  locating machining points of 177
  tram marks on 177,183
Stern frame skeg 171,179
Stern tube,
  an installed 189
  calking tight metal around 192
  correct fit for a 188
  inspecting a 190
  placing the 188
  pouring tight metal for 192
  pressure to pull in a 190
  pulling-in a 189,191
  purpose of a 188
  tight metal joint around 191
Stillson wrench 80
Straight edge 87
Strainer plate,
  purpose of 158
  stud assembly 160
Strainer plate and sea chest 158,159
Stud driver 65
Stuffing box,
  assembly of 106
  inserting packing in 106
  packed 107
  packing 107
Stuffing box packing maintenance 107
Tapping a hole 62,63
Target stand assembly 174
Target stands, setting 173
Telemotor 238,237
Telemotor, foundation for installing 238
Testing stern tube joints 193
Thickness gauge 79
Thread gauge 66
Thread pitch 64,66
Tight line,
  cross bars for adjusting 176
  cross bars to hold 175
  measuring from a 177
  placing a 174
  purpose of 171
  removing a 178
  sag in a 176
  tension weight for 175
Tiller jaw setting 236
Tin snips 77
Tools, company owned 8
Tools and equipment, "personal" 7
Trammels 86, 87
Using a drill stick 58
Using a hook rule 18
Using the "easy out" 68
Valve mechanism steam pump 140
Valve seat disc 113,114
Valve seats 113
Valve settings 118
Vertical simplex pump 141
Watertight joint assembly 108
White lead 99

  aligning capstan shafts for 219,220,221
  aligning support bases for 216,217
  classification of 210
  controls for 216
  description of 209,210
  doweling foundations for 222,223
  drilling foundations for 214
Winches, Cont'd
  laying out foundations for 214
  setting 214,215,218
  settings for 210,211,212
  alien 86
  box, twelve point 81,82
  hexagon 86
Wrench opening sizes 61

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