HNSA Crest with photos of visitors at the ships.



WHEN a ship goes into commission the proper and early organization of officers and crew calls for the earnest attention of the executive officer upon whom the duty chiefly devolves.

The duties of officers on board ship are defined by the regulations, and are known to most of them by actual experience at sea, and the special duties of midshipmen will be dwelt upon in detail further on. But the men supplied for the crew are many of them foreigners, or merchant sailors, unaccustomed to the routine of a man-of-war, or others totally ignorant of ship-life. These form a motley crowd which must be sorted out, and the work of the ship so distributed among them that, each one carrying out his part, the daily routine may be efficiently and promptly performed. The organization and routine, together with the drills and exercises which form their principal feature, all have for their ultimate object the preparation of the ship for battle.

That the machinery of a man-of-war, when once put in motion, may work properly, it should be perfected at the outset. A little well-directed industry then will save much subsequent confusion.

The number of men allowed to each vessel of the navy, exclusive of the engineer's force, is based upon the number and calibre of the guns composing her battery.

Tables for ascertaining the complement of any vessel in the service will be found in the Equipment Book of Allowances.

The following petty officers are commonly known as "appointed" petty officers, viz.:

The Master-at-Arms,
Ship's Yeoman,
Engineer's Yeoman,
Pay Yeoman,

but the terms apply strictly only to the last named.

The petty officers are divided into two classes: petty officers of the line, and petty officers.


The petty officers of the line, in order of rank, are as follows:
Boatswain's Mates,
Gunner's Mates,
Signal Quartermaster,
Coxswain to Commander in Chief,
Captains of Forecastle,
Quarter Gunners,
Captains of Main-top,
Captains of Fore-top,
Captains of Mizzen-top,
Captains of Afterguard.

All other petty officers, except the Master-at-Arms, who is chief petty officer of the ship, take precedence as follows:
Ship's Yeoman,
Machinists (1st class),
Engineer's Yeoman,
Paymaster's Yeoman,
Master of the Band,
Ship's Writers,
to rank next after the Master-at-Arms.

Carpenter's Mates,
Machinists (2d class),
Sailmaker's Mates,
to rank next after Gunner's Mates.

Ship's Corporals,
Captains of Hold,
Ship's Cook,
to rank next after Captain of Afterguard.

The following are known as the rated men of the ship, Viz.:

Officers' Cooks and

Strictly speaking, all men above the rating of seamen


are "rated men," but the above distinction is commonly made in the service.

For the uniform of enlisted men and petty officers see U. S. Navy Regulations, page 195.

The Bureau of Equipment supplies to each vessel a printed Watch, Quarter and Station Bill, which is so arranged as to furnish a uniform system for all ships in the service.

With continuous service men the advantage of such a plan is apparent; for men transferred from one ship to another, or re-enlisting, carry with them a knowledge of the stations and duties which are similar in all vessels.

The Watch Bill is the first one made out, and is the basis of all the bills that follow.

The crew as a whole are equally divided into two watches, starboard and port. In ordinary types of cruising vessels the working force on deck is distributed as forecastlemen, fore, main and mizzen topmen, and afterguard.

In the Watch Bill the station numbers for these different "parts of the ship" are divided into hundreds, the corresponding number in each hundred representing a similar rate as far as possible and embracing similar duties.

Odd numbers are assigned to the starboard watch, even numbers to the port watch. Each watch is further divided into halves, called "quarter watches," the first half containing the first and second sections of the watch, and headed by the petty officer, captain of the part of the ship. The second quarter watch, comprising the third and fourth sections, headed by the second captain.

Thus, the forecastlemen, whose numbers run from 1 to 100, are divided as follows:

(Odd Numbers.)
(Even Numbers.)
First Quarter Watch First Quarter Watch.
1 to 23, First Section 2 to 24, First Section.
25 to 49, Second Section 26 to 50, Second Section.
Second Quarter Watch Second Quarter Watch.
51 to 73, Third Section 52 to 74, Third Section.
75 to 99, Fourth Section 76 to 100, Fourth Section.

The leading numbers in each quarter watch are assigned to the petty officers, then the seamen, ordinary seamen and landsmen in the order named.

Thus, in the starboard watch of forecastlemen, 1 and 51 are first and second captains, 3, 25, 53, 75 are seamen.

To watch men by the Navy Watch Bill their names are written opposite the numbers, filling out first the leading


numbers of the first and third sections, then the leading numbers of the second and fourth sections. Thus a ship having ten (10) seamen on the forecastle, five (5) in each watch, and having filled the numbers 1, 2, 51, 52 with the names of the first and second captains, to watch the rest fill the numbers in the following order: 3, 4, 53, 54, 25, 26, 75, 76, 5, 6. It will be observed that the numbers show how extra men are stationed, by repeating the process. Were two more seamen added to the forecastle they would be given the numbers 55, 56, two additional ones 27, 28, and so on.

Each part of the ship is filled up in like manner. After all available men are entered in the watch bill, the remaining number of each part are vacant numbers.

Stations at loosing and furling are given in the watch bill. As these evolutions form the basis for all others, the men are assigned to such numbers and thereby placed in such stations as they seem best adapted to fill.

With the watch bill of the ship there is sent from the Bureau of Equipment the complement list, showing how many men of each rating will be supplied to the vessel. From this complement list is framed the Force bill, which serves as a guide in distributing the men of various ratings to the different parts of the ship.

We next proceed to the selection of the line petty officers. These men are appointed from among those seamen whose characters and capacities have entitled them to advancement to these stations, where they are intrusted with much responsibility and authority, and are expected to set an example to the rest of the crew, in their general deportment and attention to their duties. By ascertaining the length of time each man has been at sea and in the service, the stations they held in the last vessel to which they belonged, being governed also by their general bearing and appearance, a fair selection can be made in distributing these men to their stations. It is a good plan to fill the petty offices temporarily, so that obvious mistakes may be corrected, and to put the men upon their good behavior when their cooperation is most needed.

In this connection particular attention may be drawn to the value of the continuous service certificate in determining the positions which the bearers are best qualified to fill.

The seamen are distributed to fill the most important stations in a similar manner. The balance of the crew fill the remaining numbers allowed. Care must be observed in assigning to each watch an equal share of the strength and intelligence of the crew.

On the forecastle are stationed able seamen-men acquainted with all the duties of a sailor-together with a few ordinary seamen and apprentices.

In the tops are stationed seamen, ordinary seamen-active,


able-bodied men-and a few boys of the first class to handle the light sails.

The afterguard contains comparatively few seamen from among the older seamen not otherwise stationed, also a few ordinary seamen, the balance being landsmen.

Apprentice boys should invariably be stationed in the tops or on the forecastle. They should in no case be employed as permanent messengers, &c., as they are sent to sea for the special purpose of learning a seaman's duties.

Mastmen, who attend the gear at their respective masts, may be elderly seamen who, though incapable of performing heavy work, can fill these stations well, but they must be sufficiently active to insure the prompt leading out and handling of the running rigging under their charge.

Quartermasters are selected from among the best helmsmen. They should be expert with the lead and at signals.

The boatswain's mates, being the leading men of the watch, should be thorough seamen and the men best qualified for the position of a seaman petty officer.

The foregoing remarks refer exclusively to what may be termed the working force on deck. A vessel of war contains in addition an engineer's force of first and second class firemen and coal heavers, with machinists as petty officers. This force is usually divided into three watches when steaming.

The marines of a ship are divided between the two. watches, and their work on deck is generally the same as that of the afterguard. They stand regular watch at sea.

The mechanics, musicians and servants are generally watched in the afterguard.

Idlers are such as stand no night watches, having day duties to perform of a peculiar nature, such as master-at-arms, yeomen, cooks, officers' servants, &c. These men, though not required to keep a regular watch, have stations allotted to them in all the evolutions.

There are a number of officers in all vessels who are termed idlers, viz.: The captain or commander, first lieutenant or executive officer, navigator, paymaster, surgeon, marine officer, chaplain, clerks, and the midshipmen who are stationed on the lower decks. They keep no watch, but are on duty during the day.

The watch bill should show, in addition to the man's number, &c., as above described, his boat, mess, gun or division, and company.

Boats' Crews should be taken equally from the different parts of the ship, so as not to weaken one part more than another, remembering that some boats are much more frequently used than others. Life-boat crews are always picked men. Coxswains are assigned to the usual running boats; other boats, launches, &c., are placed in charge of captains of tops or of the forecastle. The dingy is usually


in charge of an apprentice, its crew being composed of boys.

Service boats are called away either to perform ordinary duties of transportation, to abandon ship in case of disaster, to carry an armed crew for service afloat, or to land their crews for operations on shore.

In making up boats' crews, if the boat is manned for ordinary duty exclusively from one or two guns' crews, the fighting crew and small-arm company will consist substantially of the same men, and by assigning the division officer to that boat the men will be under the same supervision in all operations. In this case, in "abandoning ship," the boat's crew remains as before, and the balance of the division, with other men not belonging to boats' crews, are added to the extent of the boat's capacity.

Should this system be objected to on the ground that the calling away of any one boat destroys the efficiency of one or more guns' crews, then there will have to be two "crew lists" made out-one for ordinary running boats, and the other for abandoning ship and for armed service afloat and ashore. The objection does not seem valid, but it holds good in many ships.

In making up the crews of gigs and barges it is well to remember the possible absence of these boats during port evolutions, and to avoid leaving important stations unfilled from this cause.

Berthing requires the earliest attention, and the operation may be facilitated by having a plan of the decks, showing the hammock hooks of every available berth. The watches should be distributed equally on each side of the ship, so that when one watch is piped up the other will not be left entirely on one side. Boatswains' mates and men liable to a call at any time of the night, should be placed near the hatchways; quartermasters, marines, and others who keep watch and sleep in the morning, placed where they will not be disturbed after all hands are called.

On board a frigate the berthing is generally as follows: Berth deck: servants and stewards, starboard side forward; balance of the starboard side, idlers (except carpenter's gang, ship's corporals and quartermasters); port side, forward, engineer's force; aft, marines. Gun deck: forward, forecastlemen; starboard side, main topmen and after-guards; port side, fore and mizzen topmen; or the numbers of the above parts of the ship may be run continuously athwartships, beginning forward, after having first selected billets for the men required in particular places.

Carpenters' mates and carpenters should be berthed near the pump, sail-makers' mates and captains of holds as near the hold or sail-room as possible, cook near the galley, &c.

At least one boat's crew should be so berthed in port, as to be readily called at a moment's notice.


The boys of the ship must be berthed together, and separate from the rest of the crew; usually aft on the gun-deck in charge of a corporal.

On a tack over the forward hammock hook of each billet is hung the number corresponding to the hammock, neatly painted on a small tin plate. The hammock numbers correspond with the watch numbers. These numbers are stencilled on a piece of canvas, in black for starboard watch, red for port watch, and sewed on the outside of the hammock.

In a single-decked steamer, forecastlemen and fore-topmen are berthed under the topgallant forecastle.

A hammock should contain a mattress and mattress cover, and a pair of blankets.

The men should not be allowed to keep their oilskin jackets or hats in their hammocks. Temporary jack-stays along the gangways or between the launches at sea will afford a proper place for hanging these articles.

Hammocks are lashed up by taking seven marling turns with a manilla or white rope (untarred hemp) lashing. Every hammock should have three good nettle stops on the head, for stopping on the girtlines, and two on the foot. Some officers prefer having the stops put on the girtlines, but this is objectionable, as the line stretches.

As hammock girtlines are usually fitted to trice up alongside the masts, the rule for stopping on hammocks is with the numbers "up and out;" but any change in the manner of tricing up girtlines would change the rule.

A regular station-bill for stopping on hammocks, especially on board large ships, conduces to order and saves time and annoyance.

Bedding should be aired once a week. To air bedding the hammocks are unlashed, slung by the lashing and triced up in the lower rigging.

Hammocks are scrubbed at least once a month; clean hammocks having been issued the evening before, so that they may be "slung" and the old ones prepared for scrubbing in the morning.

A complete set of clean hammocks should always be on hand. After scrubbing, they are turned in by guns' crews, each one carefully inspected by the officers of the divisions, to ascertain if all have been properly scrubbed, then rolled up, placed in a bag or case having the gun's number painted on it, and taken to the sail-room, where the sail-maker receives it. A torn or badly stained hammock should be left out and given to the sail-maker's mate, to be exchanged.

Hammocks stow in their own parts of the ship; a gauge to level them at the right height above the rail, and a hoop through which they are required to pass, being sometimes used.


Each man is required to have two mattress covers.

Messing. The crew is divided into messes of twelve or fourteen members each. Each mess has its own cook appointed from among their number, who draws the provisions, takes care of the mess-gear, and cleans the berth deck.

Each part of the ship messes by itself, as far as possible.

Petty officers mess by themselves and employ steady cooks, that is, men of inferior rating, who for certain considerations (generally the value of a ration) take charge of the mess for an indefinite time.

The present complements only allow for each vessel a number of landsmen sufficient for servants, berth-deck cooks and landsmen of engineer's force. Hence the system of steady cooks throughout the messes may be considered as adopted, excepting only such changes as may be made between fire-room and berth-deck landsmen.

Steady cooks under a good master-at-arms soon become thoroughly drilled in their duties, keep the messes in good order, and the berth-deck dry and clean. In this respect they are desirable. If in addition they are kept up to the mark in personal neatness and in knowledge of their duties at drills, and in working ship, the most serious objections to their employment will be met.

The messes are usually arranged as follows:

Forward, the forecastle messes, followed by those of each part of the ship in succession-starboard watch, starboard side; port watch, port side. Aft on the starboard side, the mechanics' messes (for rated men), petty officers' messes and appointed officers' mess; master-at-arms, orderly sergeant, yeomen, apothecary, and machinists.

The after messes on the port side are those of the firemen and marines.

Mess bills or small store requisitions are made out once a month, by the mess cooks. They contain the list of minor articles, such as tobacco, soap, cap-ribbons, sewing-materials, and mess traps, that the men wish to draw. These are served out to the mess cooks in the presence of an officer, and distributed to the messes.

Each mess has its mess-chest, which contains, in addition to the mess-gear, canisters for coffee, sugar and other groceries.

Mess-chests are kept on the berth-deck.

Salt pork or beef, when issued, is marked with a skewer bearing a tag with the mess-number on it, and placed in the harness cask near the galley. Neither meat nor vegetables are allowed to be kept below.

The issue of provisions usually takes place in the afternoon watch, and should be witnessed by an officer. Any complaint concerning the quality of the ration, is made at the mast, by the mess cook.


The berth-deck is kept clean by the mess cooks, who are excused from work in their own parts of the ship, except at all hands, and from anchor watch in port. They are also excused from duty in boats, when they can pull a fair oar. At sea, especially when short-handed, they are required to stand night watch.

That the men's meal hours should not be interfered with, excepting in cases of actual necessity, is an old established rule of the service, and a good one. There are few more justifiable causes of discontent than frequent calling away of unnecessary boats at meal time, or prolonging "all hands" work until the crew are sent below to a cold dinner. A little attention to minor matters of this kind will go a long way to securing the satisfied condition among the crew which ensures prompt and cheerful obedience to orders.

Clothing. Each man is expected to have the following clothing, viz.:

2 caps, one of which shall be a mustering cap.
2 cap-covers.
1 black silk handkerchief.
2 suits of blue, one of which shall be a mustering suit.
3 suits of working clothes.
2 undershirts.
2 pairs drawers.
2 pairs socks.
2 pairs shoes.
Badges and watch-marks, as per regulations.

1 monkey jacket, or 2 suits white, according to the station or season of the year.

Oilskins are desirable, and should form a part of the uniform, provided a suitable place is made for their stowage, such as pigeon-hole racks under the topgallant forecastle (U.S.S. Vandalia), or jackstays between the boom boats.

Each piece of clothing should be marked with the owner's name, on the article itself; tape labels, sewed on, should not be allowed.

Division officers are responsible for the appearance of their men and the condition of their clothing.

When a division is formed, or men join it, a list of their clothing should be taken by the division officer to serve as a guide in making out clothing requisitions. The clothes list should be kept corrected to the date of the last requisition.

Clothing requisitions are made out once a month, and should be preceded by a bag inspection. The issue of the clothing should be witnessed by the division officer, and all new clothing marked as soon as received.

Habitual slovenliness, if tolerated, constitutes a direct


reflection upon the officers under whose immediate charge the offender is placed; for that reason division officers should spare no pains to keep their divisions up to the mark in matters of personal neatness, as well as in points of drill and instruction.

For petty officers' badges, see Navy Regulations.

Bags (containing the men's outfit). Each man is allowed two; one of white canvas, and one of painted canvas, the former being kept in the latter. They are marked on the side and bottom with the owner's "ship's number." A small grommet stitched on the bottom of the bag encircles the latter mark and keeps it from being rubbed off.

The ship number is used in marking bags so that when a man is shifted from one part of the ship to another his hammock number alone is changed.

The arrangements for stowing bags should engage the serious attention of the executive officer, for on it depends much of the comfort and health of the crew. They must be easy to get at, at any time, for the purpose of shifting in dry, working, or mustering clothes; stowed so that any one bag can be readily obtained, present a uniform and neat appearance, and be measurably secure from theft.

Bags are stowed in large ships in bag lockers, the key being kept by the mess cook. The bottoms of such lockers should be well clear of the deck on uprights, and the sides formed of slats to admit light and air; or the bags are hung on jackstays or stored in bag rooms, the latter a very poor plan.

When there are no peacoat lockers (in the nettings), there should be peacoat bags for each watch and part of the ship.

The crew dress for the day during the breakfast hour. It has been found very convenient to have a board arranged with slips, on each one of which is painted the name of an article of uniform, as "white frocks," "blue trousers," &c., and the slips arranged as the uniform for the day requires. The slips being properly arranged, the board is hung in some conspicuous part of the ship, as at the main-hatch or scuttle-butt, near the bulletin board.

Before "quarters for inspection," the bags should be neatly stowed, and not touched again until supper, when the crew shift in blue woollen clothes for the night. As a general rule, no one is allowed to have his bag out of the regular time but by permission of the officer of the deck.

The men should be allowed to have their bags at least once a week, for the purpose of overhauling, mending, marking, and airing their clothes. Saturday afternoon is generally devoted to this. When circumstances admit, bags are piped up twice a week, and Wednesday given for


the same purpose. The men should also be allowed their bags as soon after serving out clothing as possible, that each new piece may be marked or altered, before stowing away. If the crew are not allowed frequent access to their clothes, they cannot be expected to keep them in good order.

Ditty-Boxes contribute much to the comfort of the men, and are allowed. That they may not become a nuisance, they are made of prescribed dimensions, and a definite place is assigned for their stowage.


Boatswain's Mates, in working with the watch, pass all orders given by the officer of the deck, and give the signal by pipe for veering, hauling or belaying in accordance with these orders. Working at all hands, they are stationed at a mast or in the gangway, to communicate, by pipe, the orders of the officer in charge at that station.

Forecastle Men rig and unrig the bowsprit, jib-boom, flying jib-boom, fore-mast and fore-yard.

Bend and unbend, loose and furl the head-sails, fore-sail, lower, and topmast studding-sails.

Reeve and unreeve, overhaul and hook cat and fish; pass ring-stopper and shank-painter, lash cables for clearing hawse, and stow anchors.

Lash fore-runners and tackle; hook the top-tackle blocks to top-pendants and reeve fore-jeers.

Turn in fore-rigging, reeve laniards, set it up; spar and rattle it down; and set up futtock rigging.

Attend in lighters to sling stores, &c., and keep the upper deck clean from head to foremast. Take the weather wheel.

Take the starboard lead when working with the watch.

Fore-top Men, reeve and unreeve top-pendant; fit and reeve all standing and running rigging above the top.

Bend, unbend, loose, reef, and furl fore-top sail, topgallant sail, and royal; main top-mast and top-gallant stay-sails, set and take in fore-top-gallant studding-sail, and hook the burton for top-mast studding-sail.

Shift fore top-mast and top-gallant-mast, topsail, and top-gallant yards, and put whips on yards and stays. Set up top-mast and top-gallant and royal backstays.

Bitt, unbitt, or stopper when working the cables. Keep fore-top and fore-channels clean and in order, and clean port gangway. (Main-topmen clean starboard side.)

The duties of fore and main-topmen are much, the same


in their respective tops. Working with the watch a maintopman takes the lead in the port channels.

The peak of main-trysail belongs to the main-topmen.

The Mizzen-topmen have nearly the same duties. They loose and furl the peak of the spanker, clean and keep in order the port channels and port side of quarterdeck and poop.

The After-Guard have the care of the starboard side of quarter-deck and poop, and starboard mizzen channels.

Bend, unbend, loose, reef, furl, and shift the main-sail,* main-trysail, and spanker. Look out for the mizzen rigging and cross-jack yard. Hold the reel and haul in log-line.

The Quarter Gunners rig and unrig main mast and main yard; turn in, set up, spar and rattle down main and futtock rigging.

Bend, unbend, loose, reef, and furl main-sail, main-staysail, and main-topmast studding-sail; attend lower studding-sail out-haul and after-guy; the fore-topmast studding-sail tack, and broom-brace, main tack, and sheet.

Reeve main-jeers, hook main-top tackles. Look out for sheet anchors and attend at capstan when heaving in.

Look out for battery, ordnance stores, and life-buoys.

Quarter-Masters, being generally main-yard men, work on main yard and in main rigging. To them belongs everything appertaining to the sounding and steering gear, and signals.

At sea they always con ** the ship, and attend at the heaving of the deep-sea lead and the log.

Carpenter's Mate and Carpenter's Gang rig and unrig capstan and pumps, clean pumps and skylights.

Idlers, Firemen, Marines. In working with "all hands," cooks and stewards and firemen are generally stationed to assist forecastle men in manning gear; servants man gear of fore-top-sail; mechanics, gear of main-sail, and marines divide at the gear of main and mizzen top-sails.

Ready Men were at one time considered necessary aloft, to make preparations for the different evolutions, but their use has been greatly modified, and on many ships given up altogether.

The call for these men invariably sends more hands aloft than are allowed, and they mar the effect of drills by their efforts to "get ahead" of other tops or competing vessels.

The test of efficiency in performing an evolution is the time that the men require aloft to perform it properly, and

* This applies only to those of the after guard who are stationed on the main yard.

** Con-from conduire, to conduct. To direct the helmsman how to steer.


the extra time taken up with "ready men" above the rail is greater than when they are dispensed with.

Top-keepers, &c. Each top has a top-keeper; it is his duty to keep the top and top-chest in order, to see the latter closed when not in use, and the cover stopped down, also to lay aloft and send down whips, &c., when required.

Each part of the ship supplies a chain-keeper, who keeps the chains clean and the wash-deck gear properly stowed in the chain-chest.

The Quarter Bill. For duty in action the men are distributed at the guns, or assigned to the Navigator's division as wreck clearers, &c., or to the powder division to provide ammunition.

To secure the ability of the watch on deck to prepare and work half the guns at night while the watch below are stowing hammocks or doing other necessary work, all odd-numbered broadside guns are manned by men of the starboard watch, even-numbered guns by the port watch; pivot gun crews usually half from each watch.

A gun's crew is formed of about one-third petty officers and seamen, one-third ordinary seamen, and one-third landsmen or apprentices.

The gun captains are selected from those in whose skill and judgment the greatest reliance can be placed, and with good eyesight; second captains are selected upon the same principle; spongers and loaders rank next in importance, and should be strong, active men.

In distributing the petty officers and men to guns and other stations, those stationed at the same gun or near each other at quarters are drawn from different stations in working ship, so that a great loss at any one gun will not fall too heavily on any watch station.

Exception to this rule may be made where the duties of men require their habitual presence on particular decks. In such cases it will be generally advisable to station them at quarters near the places of their ordinary duties.

For the first division of boarders will be wanted the most effective men; for sail-trimmers, men stationed on the spar deck; at the wheel, the best helmsman in the vessel; at the relieving tackles, an officer or quartermaster, with a few men to steer the vessel in case the wheel or tiller-ropes are shot away. In the magazine is stationed the gunner and his mates, and the cooper. Select for the stations below, for passing powder, shot, &c., those who may be least effective on deck, but with a quota of reliable men sufficient to insure a prompt and full supply of ammunition.

Have in the navigator's division, to attend the stoppers and to remain in the tops, active topmen.

The first lieutenant, under the direction of the commander, works the batteries, while the navigator, under


the direction of both, and assisted by the boatswain on the forecastle, attends to the manoeuvres. The other lieutenants are stationed, one to command each division. The marines, under command of their officer, are in the waist, or on the poop. and often some are stationed in each top, to, annoy the men at the enemy's guns. The midshipmen are distributed about in the tops, and at the divisions, to the best advantage.

In the Ordnance Manual, to which the student is referred, may be found the most carefully arranged quarter bills, and full instructions for quartering a crew. In this volume will be found (page 257, Arts. 935 and 936) the method of manning boats when the crews are to be disembarked under arms. This plan has for its great advantage the fact that the same men are always associated in the division and company, and under the same officer.

The Station Bills as supplied by the bureau are arranged for working either with the watch or with all hands, and their scope renders them available for any full crew in the service on board ordinary vessels, whatever their size. Should the ship's crew be materially below the complement allowed, some modifications may be required in the stations.

Stations for work aloft are so arranged as to give each man about the same amount of canvas to handle. Each station is filled by an equal number from each watch, so that with but one watch on deck the vessel may be worked and all stations manned. This divides the force, and there are an equal number of men on each side of the deck at the gear or aloft.

As it is of the greatest importance that the ropes on deck, other than those tended by mastmen, should be tended by intelligent men, the coxswains or second captains of tops are retained on deck except at bending and reefing, to attend the gear at the sides and point out ropes to be manned. This does away with much calling from aloft, which should always be avoided.

Combination station bills show the duties of each man at all evolutions, and copies of the same are posted up in conspicuous parts of the ship.

The Fire Bill should be prepared as soon as the organization of the crew is completed by the assignment of their duties on the watch, quarter, and station bills. It is necessarily a work whose features must be adapted to the particular arrangement of the ship, but it should, as far as possible, conform to the arrangement for extinguishing fire during exercise at quarters. Much confusion will arise from requiring different duties from the same person at ordinary "fire quarters," and in case of fire when at general quarters.

Directions for stationing the crew as firemen, pumpmen,


smotherers, &c. will be found in the Ordnance Manual, and the ship's fire bill may be said to be based upon the quarter bill.

Blank forms of billets are filled out for each member of the crew, and show his station at all evolutions, also his boat, gun and mess. These billets are printed on strong paper, so that the men can keep them in their caps without wearing out too soon.


Name, JOHN BROWN;   Rate, SEA;
Division, 2; Gun, 5; No. at Gun, 3;
Boat, 1st Cutter; Company, 2; Mess, 6.

Loosing sail Loose topsail.
Furling sail Furl topsail.
Bending sail Topsail-yard, overhaul gear, bend topsail.
Up and down topgallant and royal yards Topsail-yard, rig lower topgallant yard-arm.
Up and down topgallant-masts In top, come up and set up rigging.
House and fid topmasts Fid and unfid mast
Shifting topsail yards Topsail-yard, unbend and bend topsail, unrig and rig yard aloft.
Up and down lower yards In top, lash upper jeer-block.
Out and in boats In top, and receive and hook triatic-stay.
Mooring and unmooring Tend stoppers; bitt and unbitt cable.
Making sail and getting underway Loose topsail, then on deck to halliards.
Bracing up and setting courses Man main-topsail and upper braces.
Tacking and wearing Man weather main-topsail and upper braces.
Reefing topsails Topsail buntlines, reef topsail, on deck to halliards.
Shortening sail and coming to anchor Man topsail clewlines, veer and stopper cable.
Clear ship for action In top, send down light spars, snake down back-stays.


Under the present system, the men are kept on board the Receiving Ship until the vessel fitting out is so far


advanced as to be ready to receive them. No pains should be spared to get a good master-at-arms and ship's cook, and it will be greatly to the interest of the executive officer if he can procure a good painter, cooper, shoemaker and tailor.

The executive officer can have his crew mustered on board the Receiving Ship at pleasure; he therefore should lose no time in selecting his petty officers and making out the watch-bill, berthing and messing the crew. Mess cooks should be selected, and the master-at-arms and ship's cook should go on board to see if all the galley arrangements and mess-chests are complete. It is found convenient to take the men from the Receiving Ship after dinner, as it is easier to have supper the first meal to be prepared on board their own ship. When the watch-bill is complete, it will take a good clerk but a few hours to fill up the billets. If these are given to the men before leaving the Receiving Ship, they can shoulder their bags and hammocks, march on board their own ship, stow their hammocks in their proper netting, their bags in their own mess, and go to "general quarters" the next moment, if need be.

Watches, Look-outs, &c. The twenty-four hours are divided into seven watches, as follows: mid-watch, midnight to 4 A.M.; morning watch, 4 to 8 A.M.; forenoon watch, 8 A.M. to noon; afternoon watch, noon to 4 P.M.; first dog, 4 to 6; second dog, 6 to 8; first watch, 8 P.M. to midnight.

The division of the time from 4 to 8 P.M. into two watches makes the total number of watches an odd number. By this arrangement the men (who stand watch and watch at sea) are given eight hours out on one night and only four on the next night.

In port, the crew are all available for duty throughout the day, and an "anchor watch" of one or two hands from each part of the ship is kept at night.

At sea, between sunrise and sunset, there is a look-out kept at the fore topmast-head, relieved every two hours and taken in turn by a hand from each part of the ship.

Between sunset and sunrise the look-outs are generally as follows:

Starboard cat-head, a forecastleman,
Port cat-head, a fore-topman,
Starboard gangway, a main-topman,
Port gangway, an afterguard,
Starboard quarter, an afterguard, or marine,
Port quarter, a mizzen-topman.

In passing the hail, which is done every half hour, the look-outs call the name of the station in regular succession.

When a quarter-watch is aloft (with stunsails set), one hand in each top keeps a look-out and passes the


hail. Under certain circumstances of weather (low-lying fog, &c.), a forecastleman may be stationed on the fore-yard.

Men may also be stationed on the main and main-topsail yards to guard against sparks from the smoke-hack.

The look-outs on the quarters are also responsible for the life-buoys, and should know how to light and detach them.

When under square sail, there is a hand stationed at each of the halliards of the loftiest sail carried; in squally weather one stationed also at the main sheet. These men pass the hail at night with the other look-outs.

Wheel and look-outs are relieved every two hours; in bad weather it is well to reduce this to one hour.

At night the watch below is called fifteen minutes before the hour when they should "lash and carry," bringing their hammocks on deck and stowing them. When the wheel and look-outs have been relieved, the other watch get their hammocks and are sent below.

In stormy weather, or when otherwise unavoidable, all hammocks are sent below, or the objectionable practice must be tolerated of "turning in and out."

Conduct Books, &c. In regulating the privileges of the men, a set of books are kept under the direction of the executive officer. In the report book are entered the names of the men, offences committed, the name of the person Making the report, and the punishment inflicted by the commanding officer after the matter has been investigated "at the mast."

The conduct book contains the division of men into four classes, in accordance with their behavior while on board ship and ashore.

From their standing on this record, the men's names are placed more or less frequently in the liberty book, which shows the length of liberty allowed, the time of returning and the condition in which the man returned. The remarks are to be filled in by the officer of the deck.

The routine of the ship is based upon the amount of cleaning or other work that is daily required; it sets apart the meal hours, and periods of exercise.

The form of daily, weekly, and monthly routine adopted in the service, will be found in Appendix G.

It necessarily varies in port and at sea, and also to a certain extent for the different seasons of the year.

A form of routine for divisional and other drills will be found in Appendix G.

While it is eminently desirable for each person on board ship to know what he has to do, and when it is to be done, the peculiar nature of a seaman's duties make any routine objectionable which cannot be modified when necessary. Bad weather or unusual and exhaustive work may require


a suspension of the ordinary daily duties, and no routine is of permanent value unless it admits of such variations.

On the other hand, unless the executive is methodical in conducting the duties of his ship, whatever may be the routine adopted, a want of system on his part will neutralize any efforts for the maintenance of proper discipline.

Besides organization proper, there are certain other essentials which belong to every well-ordered ship.

Cleanliness, for example, is absolutely indispensable, and as it bears directly upon health, should receive every attention.

Lord Collingwood says, in one of his letters, "I have been long at sea ... Yet, with all this sea-work, never getting fresh beef nor a vegetable, I have not one sick man in my ship." And his memoirist adds; "Lord Collingwood carried his system of arrangement and care to such a degree of perfection, that perhaps no society in the world, of equal extent, was so healthy as the crew of his flag-ship. She had usually eight hundred men; was, on one occasion, more than a year and a half without going into port, and during the whole of that time never had more than six, and generally only four on her sick list. This result was occasioned by his attention to dryness (for he rarely permitted washing between decks), to the frequent ventilation of the hammocks and clothes, to the creating of as much circulation of air below as possible, to the diet and amusement of the men; but above all, by the contented spirits of the sailors, who loved their commander as their protector and friend, well assured that at his hands they would ever receive justice and kindness, and that of their own comforts he was more jealous than of his own."

These few sentences contain a fund of good advice, and are commended to the attention of those destined to command our ships.

Silence is one of the evidences of good discipline, and the crew soon acquire the habit, if properly instructed by the precept and example of the officers. Hailing the deck from aloft, giving orders in an unnecessarily loud tone, and useless repetitions of commands, should not be tolerated.

There is no reason why the pipe and signs should not be substituted for the shouting that unfortunately distinguishes some men-of-war.

In this connection it may be observed that at the bugle call for "silence" every soul on board should obey the order thus conveyed, standing fast and keeping silent until the call to "carry on."

If the imperative nature of the "silence" call is to be impressed on the minds of the men, the officers and petty officers must be the first to obey it.


Alacrity is another essential; the crew should be accustomed from the first to move smartly about the decks when on duty, and when all hands are summoned they should go up the ladders on the run. To insure promptness in the carrying on of duty, it is well to remember that the force of example goes a great way. *

* For Notes on Preparing Ship for Sea, see Appendix G. They are to a great extent a repetition of points dwelt upon in previous chapters, but classified in a different form.




STEERAGE officers (of the line) on board ship are generally assigned to duty as officers of the forecastle, midshipmen of the quarterdeck and tops, mates of the decks, hull and hold, boat officers and junior officers of the divisions.

A midshipman may also be detailed as assistant to the navigator, or as clerk to the commanding officer; in one of the latter capacities he will probably also act as signal officer.

All junior line officers who perform the above-mentioned duties are allowed such practice in charge of the deck and in the engine room as their numbers and the nature of the cruise permits. The Navy Department defines the amount of such practice and the nature of the reports made upon the subject by commanding officers.

For navigation work required of midshipmen, see Navy Regulations.

Duties of Forecastle Officer in Port. Salute the officer to be relieved, who will return the salute. Pay strict attention while receiving any orders that may have to be passed, and after receiving all instructions, announce your willingness to relieve.

The forecastle watch is generally stood on the topgallant forecastle, if there is one; and the forecastle officer is usually held responsible for work going on, and neatness, as far aft as the main hatch.

As officer of the forecastle you must see the forward part of the ship kept clean and in good order. Do not permit the men to sit on hatch coamings, in the ports or on gun-carriages, or rest their feet on the paint-work. Do not allow wearing apparel, to lie about the deck or be stowed in improper places. Do not allow bags on deck without the permission of the officer of the deck. Do not allow the sweepers to sweep dirt down the scuppers or throw it over the ship's side; it must be emptied in the ash chutes, or in the head. Keep shore boats clear of the forward part of the ship. Preserve order amongst the crew without interfering in their proper amusements. Do not allow any man on the forecastle after colors who is not in proper uniform;

* Present official titles, Naval Cadets and Ensigns (Junior Grade).


nor any one aloft after colors without the permission of the officer of the deck. Do not allow clothes to be scrubbed outside of proper hours except by permission of the officer of the deck. See the running rigging forward kept taut except in wet weather. See that the awning stops are always taut and expended. When hammock cloths are hauled over see that the stops are not hanging down, and when rolled back that they are snugly secured and hammocks kept in neat order.

Duties in Regard to Boat Beepers. See that they sit up properly in their boats; that they rise and salute all officers in passing boats; that they keep their boats from fouling each other and the ship's side; and that they are in uniform. Do not allow them to wash clothes in their boats, nor to converse with men on board ship.

Duties in the Morning Watch. Just before all hands are called, see that the forward part of anchor watch trice up forward hammock cloths. Do not allow hammocks to be brought on deck until they are piped up. See the forward hammock stowers are in their nettings when "all hands" are called. (Hammock stowers called ten minutes before reveille.)

Have the men under topgallant forecastle turn out and lash their hammocks promptly. All hammocks must be properly lashed, clews twisted and tucked snugly under the lashing. Do not allow hammocks to be thrown on deck or on the guns. Keep a sufficient number of men on deck to haul over the hammock cloths. Take the numbers of all late hammocks and enter the names on the report book.

When Hands are Turned-to after Coffee. Have all smoking stopped and smoking lamp extinguished by the corporal of the guard; the rigging laid up and wash-deck gear gotten up. Put the sweepers promptly to work sweeping down preparatory to scrubbing clothes or the deck.

Scrub and Wash Clothes. See the order promptly obeyed, giving to the officer of the deck the names of those men who state they have no clothes to scrub. Have the white clothes scrubbed first so there may be no delay in filling the upper lines, and hurry the clothes aft when the word is passed to stop them on the line.

Duties during Cleaning Deck. See that it is thoroughly done forward, all bright wood work scrubbed, and such other parts of the ship as may be ordered. See that the galley cooks scrub the funnel; that the foretopmen clean the channels; that the forecastlemen fill the tanks, and that the captain of the head always keeps the head clean. After the deck is dried down see all the paint work, hatch coamings, port sills, &c., wiped off: Have the port lids squared by the quarter gunners, and


everything put to rights about the deck. At six bells see the forward hammock cloths triced up and hammock stowers in their nettings.

Squaring Yards. See that the men lay aft promptly to the braces. When the order is given see the proper men in the fore rigging ready to lay aloft. When they are aloft see the lift jiggers put on and the hauling part of topsail jiggers sent on deck. Be particular that no ropes are hanging over the ship's side. See that deck swabs (if used) are well wrung and hung in the head to dry before stowing away. See the scupper-valve laniards hauled taut, plugs put in, and the wash-deck gear stowed away. Have all running rigging hauled taut and neatly coiled up on the pins (if not to be flemished down). See that all gaskets on sails are square; that no Irish pennants are hanging from aloft; and that all ropes in the top are coiled down neatly so as not to show above the top rim. Have the eyes of the topgallant and royal lifts and braces (yards not crossed) stopped close in to forward part of eyes of topmast and topgallant rigging so that they will not be visible from aft, and the braces stopped along the forward horns of cross-trees and jack. The stun'-sail booms must be rigged out alike, heels square, the foretop-bowlines stopped down in the top, all buntlines and leechlines stopped down, and bunt jiggers hauled taut up. See the top chest closed. See the fore and aft tackles of awnings hauled taut and no stops hanging down. When the boatswain returns and pipes down, see that the men lay down promptly together.

Clearing up Deck for Quarters. See that everything forward is clean and in perfect order. Do not allow ditty bags, boxes or wearing apparel to lie about or be stowed in improper places. Inspect about the manger, between the beams, over the knees, on top of capstan bars and all such places. Have the master-at-arms with you in this inspection to gather up all articles of private property and put them in the lucky bag. The inspection should be thorough, so that the executive officer following after may find everything in order.

During Meal Hours. See that the mess cooks keep the deck clean around their cloths. They are responsible if the deck is soiled, and should be made to clean it unless the real offender is known. See that the mess cooks fold their cloths once before rolling them away.

Much of the above applies to vessels with topgallant forecastles.

Spreading Awnings. See the fore and aft tackles lowered and hauled out together, and the earings hauled out together. When the men lay up and bring-to, see the awning out flat and the ends of the stops expended so that they cannot get adrift and hang down. Do not permit the practice of expending part of the stop and


throwing the remainder on top of the awning. Have each order from the deck promptly obeyed, and never report until ready so that the men fore and aft may work together. The boats at the booms spread and furl their awnings with the ship.

Cleaning, Bright Work. See that tarpaulins are spread and the bright work cleaned on them, that the deck may not be soiled. Send the men to their divisions. At the sound of the retreat stop all cleaning forward, and see that quarter gunners put away the cleaning gear.


He is responsible that the men forward remain on deck during their watch, and must see that the lookouts are vigilant, a bright lookout being always kept. When land, vessels, lights arid other objects of importance are seen he must promptly report them to the officer of the deck. He must see that the running lights are kept burning brightly. (The captains of the forecastle, fore and main tops attend respectively to the mast-head, port and starboard lights). He must see the head yards and sheets are kept properly trimmed, the sails well set. He must see the gear coiled down clear for running and everything in readiness to shorten sail at an instant's notice. He should always have on watch with him a pocket station bill of the forecastlemen and fore-topmen, to become familiar with every man and his station in both those parts of the ship. He musters the whole watch when there is no midshipman of the quarterdeck, otherwise he musters only the forward part. The duty of heaving the log and filling up the columns of the log-book hourly is performed by the officer of the forecastle when there is no midshipman of the quarter-deck.


He stands his watch on the port side of the quarter-deck. He receives and attends at the departure of all appointed and warranted officers, and attends with the officer of the deck at the reception and departure of all commanding officers. He sees that all orders of the officer of the deck connected with the of after-part of the ship are promptly executed. He must attend to the manning of all boats, being careful to observe that the crews are dressed neatly in the uniform of the day, having on their knife laniards, shoes, and cap ribbons, and that the boats are clean and in good order. He must report


to the officer of the deck when the boats are at the gangway and ready to shove off. He should make frequent and careful inspections of the outside of the after part of the ship to see that no ropes are hanging over, that the chains and gangway ladders are clean, and that the outside of the ship always presents a neat and trim appearance. He should see that the ends of hammock stops are kept tucked away neatly, and that the ends of awning stops are expended and secured; should be attended to when spreading awnings the ends will not get adrift if they are wound around all parts of the stop between the ridge and bolt ropes and the ends finally tucked into the eye of the splice. He must not permit any one to go aloft after colors without the permission of the officer of the deck. He must see that the sweepers wipe off their ladders after sweeping down in the forenoon and afternoon watches, and that they keep their spit kids clean. He must see that the officer of the deck is promptly informed of the approach of all boats, particularly of men-of-war boats. After a davit boat is lowered he must see the falls hooked and stopped in to the davits. He musters the men at the pumps in single decked ships. He should inspect every accessible part of the ship at least once during a night watch.


He musters the watch, petty officers and life-boats' crews. He sees the gear clear and promptly manned when ordered. He must see that the lookouts are vigilant, and that the man stationed at the life-buoys thoroughly understands his duties. He should see that the after-part of the watch keep on deck. He should learn as soon as possible the names and stations of the men in the after-part of his watch. He musters the men at the ash whip.

Log-Book. The midshipman keeping the columns of the log-book has an important duty to perform. He must never trust to his own judgment as to the course and speed of the ship; the officer of the deck will specially direct him what to record in both these cases. The other columns shall be filled as follows: Wind-the average direction for the hour to the nearest point. Force-the average for the hour except when wishing to show the force of passing squalls; for instance, when a gentle breeze has been blowing with "moderate squalls," it should be entered 3-7. In the column for weather symbols, every symbol must be used required to express all the changes of the weather for the hour. The various forms of clouds and the average amount of clear sky for the hour must be entered in their respective


columns. The barometer and thermometers are recorded at the heights shown at the termination of the hour. It is important that these instruments give as truthful an account of the conditions of the atmosphere as possible, and to insure this he must see that they are protected from the sun's rays, and that the wick on the wet bulb is always kept moist. This thermometer should not be recorded unless he is satisfied that the water which moistens the wick is of the same temperature as the air, for otherwise it would show only the temperature of the water. If the water were warmer than the air the wet bulb would show a higher temperature than the dry-an impossible condition of the atmosphere.

For other information in regard to keeping the log-book it is necessary to study carefully the pamphlet on the subject issued by the Bureau of Navigation. The meteorological data contained in log books is compiled at the Hydrographic Office for the construction of weather charts, hence the great importance that it should be correct.


He must go in the top when all hands are called for any exercise or duty aloft. He must preserve silence and good order aloft, and never permit any one to hail the deck. He must never hail the deck himself unless unavoidable. As soon as possible after being assigned to the top he should make himself perfectly familiar with the names, stations and qualities of each man in the top; the necessity of this is obvious. He is responsible that the men go to their stations as per Station Bill. He should never allow any changes without the authority of the executive officer, except for the time being when any important station is vacant, or for the purpose of equalizing the men on the yard arms. He must keep the men in the slings until the order "lay out," and keep them out until the order "lay in." When the order to man or attend the boom tricing lines is given he sees it obeyed immediately, so that all the booms shall go up or down together. When loosing sails he must see that the sails are kept well up until the order "let fall."

When making sail he must see the gear well overhauled and lighted up.

When furling he must see that the sails are not gathered up until the order "furl." He must see them neatly furled, gaskets passed square and gasket laniards tucked away securely. He must see that no ropes or Irish pennants are hanging from anywhere aloft.

When crossing light yards he must see the lifts and braces overhauled and properly put on, the slack of the


working lifts taken in, that a turn has been caught with the parrel lashing, and that the lizards are clear for slipping. In all exercises he must be sure that everything is ready before he reports.

When sending down light yards he must see the bunts secure, the clews stowed in or stopped to the quarter-block eye-bolts, the lizards hauled close down and well secured against slipping, and the lifts attended if they set up in the top. In bending, reefing, and all exercises aloft, he is responsible for the details. He should inspect the top every morning at 7:30 and report its condition to the executive officer. He must see that only such articles are kept there as belong in the top, the ropes neatly coiled down so as not to show above the top rim or over the lubber's-hole, and everything trim aloft. He must see the top chest is kept closed except when sails are loosed to dry, and that it contains heavers, marlingspikes, rope and spun yarn, straps, and grease pots. If there is to be an exercise at colors he must have everything in readiness.


He must turn out in port ten minutes before reveille, and at sea ten minutes before the idlers are called. He must get on deck at once, hurry up the hammock stowers, and see the men turn out promptly when "all hands" are called. The deck should be cleared of all but six bell hammocks in ten minutes. Directly the hammocks are up he must report the same to the officer of the deck and receive from him the morning orders for the gun-deck.

As soon as the hammocks are up and the cloths hauled over, the men are allowed fifteen minutes for coffee and smoking, after which the hands are turned-to and the corporal of the guard extinguishes the smoking-lamp.

The first thing to be done is to have the deck swept down, then the morning orders executed. If the deck is to be holystoned or scrubbed, he should have everything possible triced up clear of the deck, while a couple of hands from each part of the ship are getting up the wash deck gear. He should start the water, sand down, holystone around the guns, run them in and holystone underneath them.

The guns are run in by the different parts of the ship. The gun gear is scrubbed by those detailed in the divisional cleaning bill. The scuttle butt and harness casks by the berth deck cooks.* The galley platform, tables and chests by the galley cooks. The water-closets by the forecastle-

* Or the scuttle butt may be cleaned by the part of the ship in which it stands, and the harness cask by the jack-of-the-dust.


men, who should be made to keep them scrupulously clean. The quarter-gunners, all the spare gun gear kept on the gun deck. The carpenters and painters, the pump coamings and brakes and wardroom skylight. Each part of the ship scrubs its own ladders (those leading to the berth deck). The gunners' gang wipes off the guns and their carriages, port sills and port lids, and sees the latter square.

The mate of the deck must be sure that all corners and out-of-the-way places are thoroughly cleaned, particularly about the galley and manger. He must look carefully around the capstan, and deck and stopper bolts, see the hatch gratings removed and the rabbit of the hatch coamings cleaned. Everything movable should be moved and cleaned underneath. He should search the corners and hidden places. When the order is given to pump the ship out, the carpenter rigs the pump and the mate of the deck musters the men at it.

If the crew messes on the gun deck, when mess gear is piped he must keep the men clear of the tables or cloths until meals are piped. It is a common practice for the firemen as well as marines who have the following watch to get their meals half an hour earlier. If this system is followed he should allow the privilege only to those entitled to it, being particularly careful at sea that none of the watch on deck are below without permission. The better system is to have the firemen and marines get their meals with the deck watches at sea, and when in port for the reliefs to go on duty half an hour later.

After meals he will see mess gear cleared away. At proper time the hands will be turned-to and the smoking lamp must be extinguished.

At gun bright work he must be about to see that the deck is not soiled. After bright work he should clear the deck of everybody but cooks and sweepers, when he, assisted by the boatswain's mate, must see the deck cleared up for inspection before quarters. He must see the deck swept down and everything put in order. Before reporting to the executive he must make a thorough inspection himself. He should examine over the knees, capstan bars, gun gear and all other articles triced up to the beams to see that those places are not used as stow holes. He must see the port lids square, the ports clean and dry, the scuppers clean, the scupper valve laniards hauled taut and all plugs in. He must see that no clothing or other articles are hanging about the deck, and have all ditty bags or boxes stowed in their proper places. He must see the battery in order, all tackles made up. He must see all chests in order and that nothing is stowed behind them, chest lids raised. He must have the gratings stowed neatly on the hatches. He must have all chairs sent below. While the executive officer is


inspecting, the mess cooks must stand by their chests, the galley cooks by their chests or the galley.

The deck should be kept clean, spitting on it strictly prohibited. The port side, after quarters, should be kept clear except of such men as the executive officer may permit between the guns.

The mate of the deck attends at the serving out of provisions and sees that a petty officer is also in attendance. He must also attend to the clearing out of the lucky bag, the paymaster's clerk and ship's writer being also present. He must every evening report the deck ready for hammocks to the officer of the deck. His daily duty extends to tattoo in port and to 8 P.M. at sea.


Many of the duties laid down for mate of gun deck are applicable to the mate of the berth deck. The deck is kept clean and in order by the berth deck cooks under the master-at-arms. If the crew messes only on the berth deck the work of the cooks is confined exclusively to, deck. The mate should turn out at the same time as he mate of gun deck. His duties in regard to hammocks are the same. The berth deck is seldom holystoned or scrubbed with sand; it is either wiped up or scrubbed with soap and water, the deck being either painted or shellacked as a sanitary measure. It should never be more than wiped up before breakfast. The duties of the mate when cleaning the deck are the same as those of mate, of gun deck.

He must make the same preliminary inspection and have the deck ready for the inspection of the executive officer by 9:15 A.M. at the latest. He must never permit smoking on the deck. He must not allow the men to go to their bags without proper authority. When the men are called on deck he must see the deck promptly cleared and report it to the officer of the deck.

When getting underway or coming-to he must muster the berth deck cooks at the compressors. At sea he must never allow the air ports to be opened without the authority of the executive officer and the knowledge of the officer of the deck. He should never allow wet clothing to be hung about or kept on the deck.

As mate of the hold lie is responsible that the hold is kept clean and properly stowed. All barrels must be stowed on their bilges, bungs up, well chocked and with chime pieces between the heads of those that do not match. He must see that wet provisions are not stowed over dry. He must see that the old provisions are stowed over the new and nearest the hatches. He must see that the gear in frequent use, such as cat and fish, yard and stay purchases,


stun'-sail gear, water whips, preventer braces, &c., are stowed so as to be passed up at a moment's notice. He must see that an accurate account is kept of the expenditure of water, and, if in a sailing ship, of coal also. He must see that the tanks are emptied in regular order, starboard and port, and that they are kept clean inside.

The condensing tank should be cleaned after the other tanks are filled.

He must see the holds locked and the keys turned in to the executive officer, and report the holds locked to him at 8 P.M.

The mate of the hold is generally also given charge of the hull while in port, and should satisfy himself by frequent inspections throughout the day of the proper appearance of the ship outside, notably after drills, or the reception of stores, or after bumboats have been alongside.


He assists the officer of the division in instructing the men in all duties of the different stations, and in keeping the guns properly equipped, the supply and reserve boxes complete. He should especially see to the bright work. He should always, when not on duty, go promptly to his division at the roll and see that every one is present who is not properly excused, and that they remain until he has inspected and approved of their bright work. He must see that those detailed in the cleaning bill to clean absentees' bright work perform the duty.

At quarters he receives the reports of the gun captains and reports the absentees to the divisional officer. He accompanies the latter in his divisional inspection, being always provided with pencil and paper to note any reports. He should also accompany him after the drill in his inspection to see that everything is properly secured and that all articles are returned to their proper places. While the divisional officer is absent making his reports he is responsible that order and silence are maintained in the division. During drills he must be active and observant that all the details are promptly and properly executed. He must keep a duplicate clothing bill carefully corrected at every monthly inspection of bags. He makes out the clothing requisition under the direction of the officer of the division. He must be present at the issuing of clothing.


Obtain from the officer of the boat a list of the boat's crew, with the duties of each man for arming and equipping,


and from the Ordnance Manual a list of the equipments and the contents of the boat box.

If the boat to which he is assigned is a davit boat, he should take pride in her condition, and report immediately to the officer of the boat any injury she may have sustained or loss or damage to her fitments.

When boats are called away armed and equipped, he should endeavor to get his boat away first, completely ready for the intended service.

The duties of a boat officer in running boats have been given elsewhere. (SEE BOATS.)

Remarks. In the absence of quarter-deck midshipmen, the officer of the forecastle is generally ordered to inspect below during night watches at sea, to write up the columns of the log, muster the watches, and in general to perform the more important duties mentioned as belonging to the quarter-deck detail.

When a light is sighted forward, the forecastle officer should be prompt in ascertaining its position and reporting its bearing and color. When a sail is sighted by day he-receives and transmits the report of its bearing and character, if made out.

In mustering the watch the men toe a seam in their own parts of the ship, weather side, and each man answers his name to his number when called, falling out and passing the mustering officer. Unless important work is going on, captains of parts of ship are sent to look up their absentees and bring them to the mast. The names of men sick or excused from watch are borne on the binnacle list, kept at the wheel.

The watch being mustered, proceed to muster the lifeboat's crew abreast of the lee boat, the coxswain inspects both boats and falls, and reports "clear and ready for lowering."

The result of the muster (absentees, &c.) is reported to the officer of the deck.

The marines of the watch are mustered by the non-commissioned officer of the guard.

All officers keeping watch are called at night ten minutes before the hour, usually by the quartermaster on duty, and they should be ready to relieve on the stroke of the bell.

Make it a rule not to turn over your duty to another until you have passed all orders and instructions required, and similarly not to relieve until you are furnished with all the information which ought to be given. Few things reflect more discredit upon a young officer than ignorance on any point of the instructions generally turned over in relieving.

When stationed in a top, lay aloft as soon as you come on deck and before the light yardmen are sent into the, rigging.


When the work is mainly on the topsail yard, as in reefing, &c., your station is on the lower cap to direct the men; at other times take position in the top where you can best superintend the work. When ready aloft signal the fact to the officer in charge of the mast by facing him and raising the right hand.

On board large ships midshipmen are required to attend at hammocks, to preserve order.


Correspondence. An order from the Navy Department must be acknowledged immediately on its receipt and as per form A.

When granted "leave" or placed on "waiting orders," the post-office address of the officer must be forwarded immediately to the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation and Office of Detail.

All communications to a bureau officer should be addressed by his rank and bureau title.

When an order specifies that it shall be obeyed "immediately," the officer receiving it must proceed to obey it within twelve (12) hours after its receipt. When it directs "without delay," he must proceed within forty-eight (48) hours. When no time is specified or expression of haste used, he must proceed within four (4) days.

All official communications must be written on official paper. The navy regulation paper is thirteen and a half (13 1/2) inches by sixteen and a half (16 1/2) inches when open, made of linen stock, is stop ruled with twenty-four blue lines on the first and third pages only, one inch margin back and front, top and bottom.

Envelopes must also be white and of proper size to receive the paper when folded as per regulation.

In all correspondence, if the subject-matter can be completed on one page, and no communications or papers are enclosed, a half sheet only will be used; but if there are enclosures, a whole sheet is to be used and the enclosures placed between the leaves, separately numbered and referred to accordingly. Both sides of a sheet must never be written upon.

An official communication must be folded twice, parallel with the ruling. It must be endorsed on the top of the back with name and rank of the writer, place or vessel, date, and brief statement of contents, as follows:

A______ B______,
Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy,
New York, N. Y., Aug. 1, 188_.
Application for duty on Asiatic station.

When on duty, all official communications must be forwarded through the commanding officer.

When off duty, they will be sent direct to the department.

When an officer is on sick leave in consequence of medical survey, he must report the state of his health to the department every fifteen days.

The uniform to be worn when reporting for duty at a naval station or on board of a vessel, and when a vessel is being placed in commission, is service dress, white gloves and sword.


He salutes the quarter-deck on reaching it. Reports to the officer of the deck that he has come on board to report for duty. The officer of the deck directs the orderly to announce him to the commanding officer. The latter directs that he be shown in the cabin. He then reports for duty, at the same time handing his orders to the commanding officer to be endorsed.

Immediately after reporting to the commanding officer, he shows his orders to the officer of the deck, who records them in the log book.

He must then report to the executive officer, who will assign him to a watch, division, boat, and station at "all hands."

He will then write to the department that he has reported for duty in obedience to its order. The letter should be written as per form B, and forwarded through his commanding officer. Forms A and B usually accompany all orders.


As soon as he has been assigned to a watch, division, &c., by the executive officer, he must make a neat pocket copy of the watch and quarter bills complete; a cleaning and fire bill for his own division; a boat bill for his boat, with stations for the crew for arming and equipping; a general station bill for "all hands" for that part of the ship where he is stationed. This enables him promptly to muster the men at their stations in his part of the ship at any evolution.


On being detached from the Academy, get copy of pay accounts from the paymaster.

You are ordered to proceed to your home, and after


performing the journey you will be entitled to traveling expenses at the rate of eight cents a mile. In order to collect the same you must send your orders (a copy of them would not be sufficient) to the nearest navy pay agent, with a note requesting him to send you blanks to sign. There is a navy pay agent in each of the following places: Washington, Baltimore, Norfolk, Philadelphia, New York, Boston and San Francisco. He will forward you blanks in duplicate, which you sign and return to him. On their receipt he will send you a check for the amount due and return you your orders.

If while on "leave," or "waiting orders," you require your pay, you must send your accounts and a copy of your orders with all endorsements, certified to as follows:

I certify that this is a true copy.
_____ ______, Naval Cadet.

to the paymaster of the nearest navy-yard, and request him to take up your accounts and send you a few blank receipts. When you wish a month's pay or the sum due you, sign the receipt in blank; the paymaster will fill it out and send you a check for the amount.

Immediately on receiving orders to duty, write to the paymaster having your accounts and request him to send them to you. Accompanying your letter must be a certified copy of your last order. After reporting on board the vessel to which you are ordered, and the commanding officer has endorsed your orders, you turn them and your accounts over to the paymaster, who takes your accounts up on his books and returns you your orders after he has had a copy of them made.

Sept.___, 188_.

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the Bureau's order of the ______ for duty and will proceed in obedience thereto.

I am, very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy.


U. S. Navy,
Chief of the Bureau of Navigation and Office of Detail.


U.S.S. ____ 1st Rate.
Sept. __, 188_.

I have the honor to inform the Bureau that I have, in obedience to its order of the _____ reported to _____ for duty

I am, Sir, very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

Naval Cadet, U. S. Navy,


U. S. Navy,
Chief of the Bureau of Navigation and Office of Detail.

Washington, D. C.

Forwarded by




The Trumpet.* The preceding chapters contain the prominent features of fitting out a ship for sea. We have now arrived at that part of the course where the young officer may be supposed to take charge of the deck; to conduct the usual port exercises.

The regularity and precision of military movements are not suited to a ship's decks, nor are the commands to be laid down with the exactness given in works on military tactics; but those officers who give their orders in accordance with the customs of the service, and in a tone and manner which command attention and inspire respect, will, all else being equal, get more work out of a ship's company than those who coin expressions for the occasion, and issue their orders as if obedience were doubtful or indifferent to them.

Commands. The commands are of three kinds: first, the preparatory command, which indicates what is to be done; as Ready about! Get the starboard stun'-sails ready for setting! &c. Second, the command of caution, which elicits immediate attention, and which is quickly followed by the third-the order of EXECUTION; as Haul well taut! LET GO AND HAUL! in tacking; Set taut! HOIST AWAY! when setting studding-sails, hoisting boats, &c. Stand by! LET FALL! in loosing sail. (The first or cautionary order is printed in italics; the latter, or order of execution, in SMALL CAPITALS.)

When using the trumpet, place it so that the least concave arc of the mouth-piece may rest against the upper lip, while the greater is below and gives room for the play of the lower lip.

The commands of caution, haul taut, and stand by, are absolutely essential when working a number of men (as a watch, or all hands, for instance), for it is not possible with-

* It is customary at sea for the officer of the watch to carry a speaking-trumpet. This is done, not only that he may have an auxiliary, often necessary to the voice, but also that he may be readily distinguished as the one, for the time being, responsible for the safety of the ship.

In port the distinctive mark, sanctioned by a recent order, is a binocular, or the spy-glass.


out such commands to get them to exert themselves at the same instant, as they should do.

The preparatory order, if given deliberately, will be better understood, though it should not be uttered without due energy. The cautionary order should be sharp, quick, and full of energy, while that of execution should be distinct and emphatic.


The following forms of port exercises are based upon the idea:

1st. That the drills are carried on under nearly the same conditions as in actual practice at sea;

2d. That "ready men" are superfluous;

3d. That the light yardmen start from the tops in working their yards, sails or topgallant masts. *

The exercises designated as COLOR EVOLUTIONS are those commonly performed at the hoisting or hauling down of colors; such as crossing the light yards or loosing sail in the morning, and sending down masts and yards at sunset.

When exercising in obedience to signal, the squadron orders will show the time allowed between the preparatory signal and signal of execution. That allowance is usually as follows: Crossing or sending down light yards, loosing or furling sail, the preparatory is hoisted six (6) minutes before the moment of execution, and the execution signal three (3) minutes before it is hauled down.

In sending up and down topgallant-masts and yards, the preparatory signal is made ten (10) minutes before, and the signal of execution is hoisted five (5) minutes before the time.

In bending sail the preparatory is hoisted fifteen (15) minutes before the time of execution; left up five (5) minutes and hauled down. The execution signal is hoisted three (3) minutes before the time of hauling down. **

In color evolutions, if not exercising in obedience to signal, give the order of execution at the third roll of the drum.

If obeying signals, always give the order of execution the instant the execution signal starts from the truck.

* The practice of sending seamen on the run from the sheer-pole to the cross-trees has frequently resulted in permanent injury to the individual. It is said to induce heart disease. The light yardmen should not only be sent into the tops in advance, but in sufficient time to allow them to regain their wind before going further.-S. B. L.

** In the Training Squadron, it has been customary, after hoisting a preparatory signal, to unbend the signal part and hoist the preparatory pennant, as a signal of execution. This is convenient and saves the bunting.


That all the squadron may be prepared to cross yards or loose sail at eight, or for any other manoeuvre at the hoisting of the colors, the flagship makes it a rule to designate seven bells (7:30 A.M.) by making a "time" signal at that hour. The squadron then have an opportunity of regulating their time by the flagship, and making such preparations for eight as may be necessary.

No exercise aloft is completed while a single straggler remains above the rail; the order to lay down from aloft should therefore not usually be given until all can obey it. There are one or two cases (as in crossing yards and loosing sail) where a certain number of men must remain aloft after the rest. In such instances, these men perform their duty promptly, lay down into the tops and remain there until piped down.

In all port evolutions, as soon as the crew are ordered to their stations, the men who are to go aloft place themselves inboard at the foot of the rigging ladders on their respective sides by watches. Men stationed on the head booms place themselves inboard of the head rail.

When about to lay aloft from the tops, the light yardmen place themselves at the foot of the topmast rigging outside of the tops. If going aloft to send down yards, they carry with them the bending ends of their respective tripping lines. Once bent, these are often left permanently aloft during drills, and lie in a loose coil at the foot of the respective masts.

When the men reach the yards, they should remain at the slings until ordered out. This rule is general.

Substitute signs for verbal orders whenever practicable. Commands can be frequently omitted with good effect. For example, in crossing yards or loosing sails, beating the "call" by the drum (or sounding it by bugle) is a sufficient signal for the men to lay aloft. So also the third roll indicates the moment of letting fall, and dispenses with a certain amount of unnecessary noise.

Should the bugle be used at colors instead of the drum, give the orders "sound the call" and "sound off."

At the first note of the bugle the light yardmen lay aloft from the tops, or the yards are swayed across, sails let fall, &c., as the case may be.


General Directions. In all routine exercises with sails, as soon as the lower yardmen are on the lower yards, the two out-board men lay out quickly and unclamp the quarter-irons of the topmast stun'-sail booms. The two out-board men on the topsail-yards lay out to stop out the royal and topgallant yard-ropes to the topsail lifts in case


the light yards are in the rigging. These men should perform their duty promptly, and lay out and in together to the slings of the yards.

At the end of an exercise the same men on topsail-yards cast adrift the yard-ropes, and those on the lower yards remain out to clamp the boom-irons after the booms are lowered, then lay in quickly and down from aloft together.

In loosing, furling, bending, &c., the captain of the top, or man in charge at the slings of the yard, raises his right hand, as a signal to his officer on deck, the moment when the sail is ready for letting fall, as the case may be. No hailing from aloft is needed, and none should be tolerated.

If there are midshipmen in charge of the tops they should receive and transmit reports in a similar way, and the officers in charge of the respective masts on deck should also signify their readiness by signal of the hand to the executive officer.

For frequent port drills topsail-sheets may be singled and secured together with the clewlines by means of a short pendant fitted with sister-hooks connecting sheet and clewline to the clew of the sail.

The tacks and sheets may also be singled, or you may reeve one piece of half-worn rope, long enough for both tack and sheet, form a cuckold's neck in the middle, lead one end aft and the other forward. In the place of the regular clew-garnet reeve a rope through the clew-garnet block, half-hitch it to the cuckold-neck in the tack and sheet, leaving enough to splice in a pair of sister-hooks, which hook into the clew, thus connecting tack, sheet and clew-garnet to the sail.

These single tacks and sheets answer all purposes for drilling, and preserve the regular ones.

Use single ropes' ends for trysail sheets.

(Color Evolution.)

The preparatory signal being made, direct the boatswain to call:


When the men are up:

Man the clew jiggers and buntlines!*

This order shows How the sails are to be loosed. Let go and overhaul leechlines, reef tackles, brails and bowlines; also tacks, sheets, clew-garnets and clewlines, if hooked.

When preparatory signal is hauled down:

* If clew-jiggers are not used the clewlines should be kept fast and the buntlines hauled up square with the yard.



As execution signal is hoisted:

Beat the call! ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS!

Man the boom tricing-lines!


Keep fast topgallant and royal clewlines.

If the light yards are not aloft, the yard-ropes should be overhauled. The light sails are loosed in the rigging.

If ship has fires lighted, cast off forward stops of the covers of the main-sail and main-topsail, so that the sails will drop clear. Sail covers are taken off the fore and aft sails and head sails.

The officers having signalled their readiness: Stand by!

To the drummer: Roll off! At the third roll, or when execution signal leaves the truck:



The clew-jiggers and buntlines are hauled up alike, about two-thirds up the topmast. Topgallant-sails and royals hang down, their clews hauled up snug. The head sails are spread on the booms, heads of fore and aft sails hauled about half-way out.

The booms remain triced up.

Do not allow the leeches to be stopped in along the yards.

When loosing, if the sails are reefed, first let fall, shake out the reefs and then pull up the buntlines or haul out the bowlines, as the case may be.

If boats are to be lowered at colors, give the order in season:

Boat-keepers aft to lower your boats! and lower at the third roll. The falls should be hooked in their beckets and hauled taut, boat stoppers passed inboard and the boats hauled out to the booms, with their colors set, awnings spread, or sails loosed, as may the example of the flagship. In addition to the boat-keepers of the day, their reliefs lay aft to tend the boats' falls.

(Loosed to the buntlines.)

The preparatory signal being made, direct the boatswain to call:


If the light yards are across, on hauling down the preparatory signal:


Have hands by the clew-jiggers and buntlines, man the buntwhips, spanker and trysail brails.


As execution signal is hoisted:

ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!

Topgallant and royal yardmen start at this order from the tops.

ALOFT LOWER YARDMEN! LAY OUT! The men all get in their places, the sails not to be handed until the execution signal is hauled down, then:


The leeches are passed in rapidly, the sail gathered up snugly, and the gaskets passed square. When ready, the clew-jiggers and buntlines are eased down and buntwhips hauled up. Haul taut clew-lines and topsail sheets, clew-garnets, bowlines, leech-lines and brails. Put covers on fore and aft sails.

When ready aloft:

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!


And then:


Haul taut the rigging, square yards as described further on, clear up the decks and pipe down.

If the light yards are in the rigging, the sails are furled there-the light yardmen laying up in the lower rigging after the men have been sent aloft.

It will be noticed that the time of giving the orders to LAY ALOFT and to FURL differ from the instructions given in the signal book; but the method adopted is the best to insure the working together of other ships with the flagship. This is presumed to be the object of port drills in squadron.

If the drills are to be competitive in their character, an easy method of attaining the object is to hoist a general signal without preceding it by the preparatory.

Remarks on Furling. To furl a sail well, every cloth must be gathered up in handfuls, and each handful stowed. When this is done, let all hands lay hold of the skin; shake the slack canvas into it, and then toss the sail up, bringing the skin as a covering over the upper side of it. The bunt in this way will be low and round. The outside only will be wetted in the event of rain, and will dry without even being loosed.

High and Low Bunts. Low, or rolling bunts, require bunt-gaskets, and are tedious to stow, and secure snugly high. or French bunts require no gaskets, but secure to the topsail-tye by a becket and stop. Being larger, and more open abaft, the slack sail is more easily stowed in them than in low bunts; neither is any time or labor lost about bunt-gaskets, a circumstance not to be overlooked, in competing with other vessels.

The look is a matter of taste; in foreign navies topsail yards are thought neatest, with first or second-reef earings


hauled partly out, but neither reef-points tied, nor bunt-gaskets on. In our service the reefs are never hauled out for furling and the bunt is peaked up by the bunt-jigger. Bunt-gaskets are used in addition, though objected to by many officers, as superfluous.

The proper place for the bunt-whip glut is two-thirds the depth of the first reef.

(Color Evolution.)

Preparatory signal being made, the boatswain and his mates give the call:


The men being up, Lead along and man the bowlines and halliards! This indicates the manner in which the sails are loosed.

As preparatory signal is hauled down:


Let go and overhaul clew-jiggers, buntlines, leechlines, down-hauls, reef-tackles, brails, and royal and topgallant clew-lines. Lead out and man bowlines, head halliards and sheets and spanker and trysail out-hauls and sheets; but a turn is kept on the pins till the men are ready aloft.

On hoisting of execution signal:

Beat the call! ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS!

Man the boom-tricing lines! TRICE UP!

LAY OUT! LOOSE! Toggle the bowlines!

At this order the men in the bunt toggle the bowlines to the buntline toggles. Unhook tacks and sheets if fitted for exercise, also topsail sheets and clewlines; or, overhaul the latter roundly.

The sails being ready and gear manned:

Stand by!

To the drummer: Roll of!

At the third roll (or when execution signal leaves the truck):



The men on deck run away with the bowlines and head halliards. The bowlines are hauled out square, the courses let fall so as to hang square, head sails hoisted, and sheets hauled aft, fore-and-aft sails hauled out, and trysail sheets and spanker out-haul hauled aft.

Overhaul roundly the topgallant and royal clew-lines.

In foreign navies the topgallant and royal sheets are hauled taut-the plan is not generally followed in our own service. The booms remain traced up.

Observe remarks about reefed sails under LOOSING TO THE BUNTLINES.




The preparatory signal being made, call:


When preparatory signal is hauled down,


Man the clew-jiggers and buntlines; head down hauls; spanker and trysail brails!

Man the above-named gear, also the leechlines, topgallant and royal clew-lines, and spanker and trysail head down hauls and clew ropes. Tend the head sheets and halliards, trysail and spanker outhauls and top bowlines.

Signal of execution being hoisted:

ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!


The topgallant and royal yardmen start from the tops as the topmen start from the deck.

Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL!

The men on deck let go the gear tended, and haul on the gear manned.


The men take their stations on the yards.

As the signal of execution is hauled down


The bunt-jiggers are hauled taut as soon as practicable and bunt roused up, top bowlines untoggled and hitched to the neck of the topsail tye-blocks, bights overhauled down and stopped to the forward part of the top. Unhook clew-jiggers and hook them in the top, hook clew-lines and sheets and tacks, if unhooked before loosing.

The head and fore-and-aft sails are stowed and covers put on.

When ready:


Stand by the booms! DOWN BOOMS!


Then square yards, clear up the decks, and pipe down.


If the sails are sufficiently dry, it is usual to furl at seven bells in the forenoon watch; before furling, however, it may become necessary to shorten sail. When a fresh breeze springs up, a ship with so much canvas gets uneasy at her anchor; or, there may be indications of rain. For whatever reason, if it becomes desirable, call


And when the people are up,



Man the clew-jiggers and buntlines, head down-hauls! spanker and trysail brails!

Man and tend the gear named under FURLING FROM A BOWLINE.

Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL!


Furling the light sails before the rest is a common practice, particularly when short handed. It is entirely optional, however, and if preferred to furl all together, the orders relating to them will be omitted. The same applies to them when in the rigging. At the order, SHORTEN SAIL, the bowlines and halliards are let go, the head sails are hauled close down, the square sails are hauled up by the clew-jiggers and buntlines, and the trysails and spanker brailed up.


If the sails have been badly furled, or for any other reason require restowing, the preparatory signal will be made. Call:


When the men are up, as the preparatory signal is hauled down:


On hoisting of execution signal:


Man the boom tricing-lines!


On hauling down of execution signal,


The gaskets are cast off and the sails are restowed, with a fresh skin outside, the gaskets secured afresh.

When completed,

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!


If the sails are very badly furled, send aloft the FURLERS instead of the loosers, and LET FALL! then FURL AWAY!

The clew-jiggers and buntlines are usually run up a few feet while mending the furl, lowering as the bunt is stowed.


In the chapter on SAILS will be found a description of the method of bending sails made up for stowage, as received from the Navy Yard. In practice, however, square


sails should be kept on board ship (if the sail-room space permits) ready for bending, made up as furled.

Preparations for Bending. All square sails are fitted with gaskets, stitched on the head at equal distances.

Seize the sail straps to the heads of all three of the topsails at the middle eyelet holes; let them always remain there, and when using them, after the sail is rolled up, carry the foremost leg round the after one, and seize its bight to its own parts. Topmen are very apt to cut this seizing too soon; but by having the strap fast to the head, their mistake may be partly remedied by a pull on the sail burton, which is always hooked to the after leg.

Topsails. Haul the head of the topsail along the deck, after side downward; gather all the slack canvas back from the head; lay the second reef-band along the head, and haul this and the head taut fore and aft by the earings. Bring the leeches as far as the reef-tackle cringles along the head; knot the fourth reef-earing into the third reef-cringle, and the third into the second; carry the clews into the quarters about six feet over the head; bring the buntline toggles about a foot over the head between the clews: coil all the remainder of the roping, so as not to ride, leaving the bowline cringles out; face the foot and gather up; then face the head and roll up, pass the gaskets taut; stop the clews up abaft the head, after having passed them over the fore part of the bunt; seize the strap; hook the sail tackle; knot the second reef-earing into the first reef-cringle, the first into the head, unless bull-earings are used on the yards; and secure the head-earings along the top of the sail on each side.

Fig. 373 and Fig. 375, Plate 71, show the mode of passing sail straps. The latter with single legs is preferable for permanent straps, as it is easier to stow away aloft. Each leg should be seized to the head of the sail.

Courses. Place, open out and stretch the heads of the courses taut along the deck well amidships, after sides down; the foresail on the starboard side of the forecastle, port head-earing well forward; the mainsail in the port gangway, bunt abreast the mainmast, starboard head-earing forward; gather the sail back from the head, making a smooth surface; stop the first reef-cringles to those of the head-earing; pass the leeches taut until within six feet of the clews, leaving the leechline cringles out. If the leeches are too short to allow the clews to reach to the bunt by taking the first reef-cringle to the head-earing cringle, a bending cringle must be worked on the leech about a foot under the head-earing cringle; in which case, make the sail up without seizing the first reef-cringle to the head-earing. (The yard-arm jiggers will hook to the bending cringle.) Haul the clews and the remainder of the leeches out clear of


the head of the sail; carry the foot-rope up to the head, leaving the buntline toggles out clear about the middle of the sail; gather sufficient of the slack sail to make a long low bunt; the men cross over, face the head, roll up taut and pass the gaskets; coil and stop the earings to head of the sail; take the clews over, around and under the sail, and stop them to the head of the sail; place marks on the head of sails, at distances from the middle equal to the distance from the slings to the leechline blocks on the yards, so that the leechlines will haul the sail up fair in bending.

In bending courses and topsails together, the topsails are placed fore and aft forward of their respective masts, fore and mizzen on the port side, main on the starboard side. The courses are athwartships under their respective yards.

Gear for Bending Topsails. The sail burton, hooked before the sail leaves the deck; yard-arm jiggers, hooked when sail is aloft.

1st. The sail burton is the top burton of the side on which the topsail is swayed aloft. The upper block is hooked into a strap at the crotch of the topmast-stay; the lower block and fall are sent on deck forward of all. To the hook of the lower block secure a tail-block, through which reeve the fall, leading it thence through a snatch-block hooked to a bolt well forward. This arrangement guys the sail clear as it goes aloft. The fall leads aft for the fore and main, forward for the mizzen. The lower block of the sail burton hooks into the sail strap. Fig. 266, Plate 35, also Figs. 373 and 375, Plate 71.

2d. The yard-arm jiggers-the upper blocks hooked to straps on the pacific-irons of the topsail-yards, the lower blocks hooked at the forward side of the top rim, ready for hooking into the second reef-cringles of the topsail as soon as they are high enough.

The topsail reef-tackles are used for this purpose, if practicable. Should their lead not permit of it, other jiggers must be substituted.

Gear for Bending Courses. Buntlines, leechlines, and yard-arm jiggers; all bent (or hooked) before the sail leaves the deck.

Toggle the buntlines to the sail; pass them abaft, under and up forward around the bunt of the sail, around their standing parts, and stop to their own parts.

Leechlines are clinched to their cringles and stopped to their marks at the head of the sail.

The yard-arm jiggers are the clew-jiggers; upper blocks carried out to straps on the pacific-irons, lower blocks hooking to the first reef-cringle, head-earings hitched to standing parts of the jiggers. If regular reef-tackles are fitted, use them for yardarm-jiggers.

Gear for the Jib. The down-haul and halliards, and a


strap around the body of the sail to which the halliards are hooked and down-haul bent.

Gear for the Spanker. If the gaff is not lowered, a whip from under the top to hook into a strap around the head of the sail. The detail does not differ from the description of bending spanker given under SAILS.

The courses, topsails, jib and spanker are generally bent together. To perform the evolution, at the preparatory signal the boatswain will be ordered to call "BEND SAIL."

Loosers of topsails and courses, and men stationed at boom tricing-lines, stand by to lay aloft.

The balance of the men in each part of the ship go below and rouse up the sails, or if the hatches open fair to the sail-room, clear these hatches away to rouse up the sails from below with the spare main-top burton, overhauled down abaft the top, or with the trysail vangs.

On hauling down of preparatory:

ALOFT SAIL LOOSERS! Loosers of courses go on the lower yards, overhaul lower blocks of clew-jiggers to the deck, stand by to carry out upper blocks, cast adrift bunt-whips, overhaul buntlines and leechlines to the deck.

Loosers of topsails; shift upper block of sail-burton to strap on stay, send down lower block and fall, forward; hook lower blocks of yardarm-jiggers to top rim, stand by to carry out upper ones, secure back cloths, unless these are sewn on the sail, cast adrift buntlines and bunt-jiggers.

Loosers of jib lay out and bring in jib halliards and end of down-haul, place centipedes.

On deck, let go and lead out sail-burtons, buntlines, leechlines and jib down-haul, lower spanker gaff and prepare sails for going aloft as before directed.

CARRY OUT YARDARM-JIGGERS! The men lay out with the upper blocks and hook them, unclamp the booms, and if the light yards are in the rigging stop their yard-ropes out of the way.

LAY IN ON THE YARDS! The men aloft lay in and stand by to receive the sail!


As the signal of execution is hoisted:

Haul taut! SWAY ALOFT! Pull up on the jib-halliards, raising jib well clear of the rail; run away with the sail burtons and jib down-haul. When the bunt of the topsail reaches the lower yard, start up the courses.

The yardarm-jiggers and leechlines should not be touched, the sails hanging up and down the masts by the burtons and buntlines. When high enough, with the second reef cringle of the top-sails above the tops and the bunt of the course abreast of its yard:

A turn with the burtons! The men in the tops slew turns. out of the sails and hook the yardarm-jiggers.


Stand by to lay aloft! and when ready:

ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!


Man the boom tricing-lines, yardarm-jiggers and leech-lines!

TRICE UP! HAUL OUT! LAY OUT! AND BRING TO! as the signal starts from the truck.

At the order HAUL OUT:

Top-sails are hauled out taut along the yard by the yardarm-jiggers, the burtons slacked until the middle bending hole is abreast the jackstay.

Courses are hauled out by the yardarm-jiggers and leechlines; jib is swayed out by the down-haul.

At the order "BRING TO:

1st. Secure the midship stop and two robands of a side.*

2d. Pass two turns of the head-earings through their respective eye-bolts and four turns through the thimble of the backer and head-earing cringle.

3d. Secure the balance of the robands.

4th. Cut adrift the buntlines, leechlines and sail-strap, and haul the former up clear.

Let go on deck and cast off the yardarm-jiggers, stand by to carry in their upper blocks, hook the topsail reef-tackles to their proper cringles; hook the reef pendants to the courses; hook and haul taut buntwhips, toggle top-bowlines and topsail buntlines; hook sheets and clew-lines to the clews; shackle tacks and sheets and hook clew-garnets to clews of courses; shift upper block of sail-burton to masthead pendant; round up the burton on deck, shift its lower block and fall abaft the topsail yard to its place.

The jib is swayed out by its down-haul at the order "sway aloft," tending the halliards; land the tack on the boom, hook the tack, shackle the sheets, shift the down-haul and halliards to their proper places, take off sail-strap, hoist the sail as the hanks are being secured. Then haul down and stow it, and put the cover on, unless sail is to be made.

While the sails are being bent, the signal will probably be made, MAKE SAIL! Order:

Stand by to let fall: Man the topsail sheets and halliards!

* A metallic roband consists of a galvanized iron hook which hooks upon the bending jackstay and which has, on its forward side, a projecting lug, like a button. The head of this button is pierced with a thwartship hole. In bending, the roband eyelet on the sail is put over the head of the lug, and when all the robands have been attached, a piece of ratline stuff is rove through the heads of all the lugs, forward of the sail, as a preventer. The hooks traverse on the jackstay, so that the head of the sail may be stretched at any time by hauling on the head earings without unbending the sail. Fitted to the sails of the Trenton and Galena, and in many merchant ships.


The sail being bent and loosed:

Stand by! LET FALL!


LAY IN! Stand by the booms!


and proceed as in MAKING SAIL.

It is always advisable to proceed as above in bending new sails or preparing for sea, to see if the gear is properly bent and the sail sets well.

Should there be no signal for making sail after bending, then, the sails being bent and the furl "mended," as necessary, order:

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!


The booms are lowered and clamped, and all the men lay down from aloft, without straggling.

To Bend the Light Sails. The light sails are generally bent immediately after the others, to do which, give the order:

Stand by to bend the light sails! At this the yards are prepared for getting out of the rigging, and the flying-jib for going out, on the port side, owing to the lead of the downhaul; when ready

Man the topgallant and royal-yard ropes! flying jib halliards!

Haul taut! SWAY OUT OF THE CHAINS! Pull up on the flying-jib halliards, and then haul out the flying-jib by the down-haul at the same time that the yards are swayed inboard. The yards being clear of the hammock nettings-


The sails are bent and neatly furled, with the clews in; the yard-ropes hooked and manned; the flying-jib being bent at the same time. Then, order:

Man the yard-ropes!


When placed in the rigging the bunts of the light sails should be slewed outboard.

On board large ships, it is convenient to get these yards in and out of the rigging with the lower clew-jiggers.

(Port Routine-Light Yards in the Rigging.)

At preparatory signal, call:


On hoisting of execution signal:


The loosers of courses, topsails, jib, flying-jib, spanker and trysails go to their stations.


Man the boom tricing-lines!


Cast gaskets adrift from the yard and pass them around sail.

On Topsail-Yard. Cast off midship stop, unhook the bunt-whip and secure it to the tye, secure the buntlines around the body of the sail, take the bight of the buntline on the side opposite to the one on which the sail is lowered, and stop this bight snugly to the head-earing cringle. Hitch bowlines to tyes, unhook clews and stop them to the buntlines, unhook reef-tackles and pass the lower blocks into the top; pass slip stops if necessary to hold up the sail, single the head-earings for easing away, cut robands.

Make similar preparations on the lower yards, except that the leechlines are secured to the slings and the reef. pendants stopped along the yard to the jack-stay.

Head Sails. Cast adrift sail covers, secure them with the sails, unshackle sheets, stopping them to the stays, cap or wythe, as the case may be, pass stops around the sails, cast off gaskets, unhook the tacks, hook the halliards and secure the down-haul to a strap around the body of the sail, cut adrift the hanks, or untoggle them.

Trysails, &c. Let the covers fall on deck, hook whip under top and to strap around head of sail, unbend head out-haul and down-haul and throat lashing, cut adrift stops on hoops of gaff and mast, cast off tack lashing.

Man the head halliards, tend buntlines, trysail whips, brails and clew-rope and head down-hauls.

Stand by!

When execution signal is hauled down-


Ease away the earings, let go the slip stops on the yards, run away with the topsail buntline of the opposite side, tricing up the upper earing of the topsail. Run the head sails up by their halliards some ten or twelve feet.


The men aloft see the yards clear of stops and yarns, and if so ordered strip them of reefing beckets and back cloths, unless the latter are stitched to the sail. Ease in the head sails by their down-hauls.

When ready

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!


Then square yards, haul taut the gear and pipe down.

If the light yards are in the rigging, sails bent, the sails may be unbent in the rigging, but it is decidedly more shipshape to sway out of the chains and unbend inboard after the evolution aloft has been performed.

If the light yards are aloft, sails bent, see UNBEND SAIL AND SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS.


NOTE. A handsome method for unbending topsails in port is to reeve a light line from deck, through a tail-block on the lift, at the side upon which the topsail is to be lowered, taking the end along the yard and bending it to the opposite head-earing. At order "ease away" keep fast the head-earing on the lowering side, ease away the other earing, hauling on the light line on deck and rousing over one head-earing toward the other.

At order "lower away," lower the buntlines, keep fast the light line and head-earing for a moment, to fully decide the sail's lowering well clear of the lower stay, top rim, lower braces, &c., then lower rapidly together.


Preparatory signal will be hoisted ten (10) minutes beforehand.

Direct boatswain to call:


As soon as the signal is made out, get the lower booms alongside and unhook topping-lifts; cast adrift ridge-rope and top up spanker boom. The crew go to their stations as in "loosing sails." In addition, hook leaders and snatch topsail halliards and lead the halliards and sheets out; lead jib halliards through a leader hooked forward, and close amidships, clear of the topsail halliards; lead out spanker outhaul; lay down on deck, tacks, sheets, buntlines, clew-lines, clew-garnets, leechlines, reef-tackles, down-hauls, brails, braces, lifts and bowlines.

Signal of execution will be hoisted three (3) minutes beforehand.


Will be given as soon as the signal of execution reaches the truck.

As the signal is hauled down:


Man the topsail sheets and halliards; jib halliards and spanker outhaul!

The starboard fore and port main topsail halliards are manned by a few hands, and a good strain is kept upon them, while the topsail yards are being hoisted.


Will be given as soon as the men reach the yards. Keep the sails well up on the yards and on the head "booms; overhaul topsail buntlines, fore and main leechlines and bunt whips; the men on deck let go topsail buntlines and reef-tackles; tend bunt whips and topsail clewlines, down-hauls. and brails.

Stand by!




Tend the braces!


Will be given when all ready aloft and about decks. Make a short pause after the cautionary order "stand by." The remaining parts of the order save the last, are given in quick succession. The jib is hoisted and the spanker hauled out. The order to "hoist the topsails" is given as soon as the men are off the yards. The loosers, except those stationed aloft to light up gear, rapidly lay down from aloft and in from off the head booms, and clap on their respective topsail halliards. The clewlines are eased down, to prevent accident to the men on the lower yards. The topsail braces are let go and tended. The mizzen topsail is hoisted by the men stationed on the halliards; the men on the fore and main topsail halliards walk respectively aft and forward, cross the deck abaft the engine-room hatch and forecastle, and clap on the main and fore topsail halliards.


Will be given when the leeches of the respective topsails are taut. The topsail halliards are belayed, unsnatched, and coiled down clear for running.

Topgallant sheets and halliards!

Will be given as soon as the topsail halliards are belayed. The gear will be manned, and the topgallant clew-lines, buntlines and braces tended.


The topgallant sheets are hauled home; the sails hoisted to a taut leech; the braces are let go and tended. When the sails are hoisted and the sheets home:

Royal sheets and halliards! Flying jib halliards!

Overhaul down-haul and royal clewlines; tend royal braces.

SHEET HOME, HOIST AWAY! hauling aft the port (starboard) flying jib sheet.

The halliards and sheets are belayed and coiled down clear for running.

Man the port (starboard) head and main, and starboard (port) crossjack braces:

Fore and main tacks and sheets: let go and overhaul the lower lifts: Clear away the bowlines: will be given as soon as the royals and flying jib are set.

Haul taut; BRACE UP: clear away the rigging: HAUL ABOARD.

A short pause is made after the cautionary order. The yards are braced sharp up on the starboard (port) tack, and the courses set as when "by the wind."


Haul taut the weather lifts: steady out the bowlines: LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT:

Will be given as soon as the previous order has been executed. The lifts and bowlines are hauled well taut: everybody will lay down from aloft. The men on deck will see everything clear for shortening sail.

A common error in this evolution is to man the topsail sheets heavily, and ensure getting the sheets home before attention is paid to hoisting rapidly. This makes heavy work for the sheets, sawing the foot of the sail across the stay. It is better to put all but a few hands on the halliards till the sail is about two-thirds up, then if the sheets are not home, break off hands from the halliards to the sheets as required.

(Ship under all plain sail by the wind.)

Preparatory signal will be hoisted ten (10) minutes before clewing up. Direct the boatswain to call:


When the preparatory signal is hauled down, the men stationed in the tops to light up rigging and to lay out on the lower yards to attend at the topsail sheets, are sent aloft: the former will go to the topmast heads and overhaul down the clew-jiggers forward of the topsails, and the latter to the quarters of the lower yards, and stand by to carry out the lower blocks. The men on deck lead out the royal and topgallant braces, clew-lines, topgallant buntlines, flying jib down-haul, and fore and main clew-garnets, buntlines and leechlines.

Signal of execution will be hoisted three (3) minutes before clewing up.

Man the royal and topgallant clewlines: flying jib down-haul: fore and main clew-garnets and buntlines!

Will be given when the signal reaches the truck.

The fore and main clew-garnets, buntlines and leech-lines; royal and topgallant clewlines, weather braces, topgallant buntlines and flying jib downhaul are manned. Have hands by fore and main tacks and sheets, royal and topgallant sheets and halliards, lee braces and flying jib halliards. The men on the lower yards lay out and hook the topsail clew-jiggers.

Haul taut: SHORTEN SAIL!

will be given when the signal of execution is hauled down; a short pause is made after the cautionary order. The gear tended is let go, the lee royal and top-gallant braces are let go and belayed at their square marks; run away with the gear manned. The courses are hauled up: the royals and


topgallant sails are clewed up, the yards clewed down, and the weather-braces rounded in and belayed at their square marks; the flying jib is hauled down. The tacks, sheets and halliards are hauled taut and belayed: the leechlines, buntlines, clew-garnets, clewlines, braces and down-haul are coiled down.

Man the topsail clew jiggers and buntlines; jib down-haul: spanker brails!

Tend the topsail sheets, jib halliards, spanker outhaul and top bowlines.

Haul taut! SHORTEN SAIL!

The jib is hauled down and spanker brailed up; the bowlines are let go; the men run away with the topsail clew-jiggers and buntlines, until up to their marks. The clew-jiggers and buntlines are belayed and coiled down.

Man the weather braces! Stand by the topsail halliards! will be given as soon as the topsails are clewed up. The men jump to the weather lower and topsail braces, and lower lifts, and stand by to lower away on the topsail halliards.

The men on the lower yards, unclamp the studding sail booms, and lay in to the slings of the yard.

Settle away the topsail halliards! SQUARE AWAY!

Will be given as soon as the gear is manned. The topsail halliards are lowered roundly, until the topsail yards are down, when haul them taut, belay and coil them down. The braces are hauled in and the lower lifts down and belayed at their square marks, and coiled down.


Will be given when the "signal of execution" for that evolution is hoisted. This order will be repeated by the boatswain and his mates, and executed as per furling sails when loosed to the buntlines. But after "ALOFT LOWER YARDMEN, add: Man the boom tricing lines! TRICE UP!

If the clew-jiggers are already hooked (or not used) the men stationed on the lower yardarms are not sent aloft till execution signal is hoisted.


The yards are generally squared daily in port at seven bells in the morning watch, and also after any exercise aloft.


SQUARE YARDS! Call away the _____ cutter!

Mastmen lay down braces and falls of lower lifts. The square yardmen stand by to lay aloft.

The boatswain should first assure himself that the slings of the light yards are down in their places, and also that the masts are properly lined; particularly the lofty spars


which are apt to get out. Then commencing forward, the boatswain squares the yards by the braces, lining them by the break of the forecastle, coamings of hatches, &c., as may be most convenient.

The yards being squared by the braces, and the cutter manned at the port gangway, as the boatswain leaves the side order:


Get the lift-jiggers on!

The square yardmen stand by to come up the racking seizings and tend the lifts. The boatswain pulls ahead of the ship, the chief boatswain's mate lays out to the flying jibboom end, and repeats such orders as are issued by the boatswain. The boatswain's mates place themselves at each mast, and carry out the orders received.

When the yards are square by the lifts and braces, the boatswain's mates go to the sides or poop to repeat such orders as the boatswain may give in pulling around the ship.

The boatswain carries with him a white, a red, and a blue flag, each bent to a short staff, to denote respectively yards on the fore, main, and mizzen masts. He faces the ship. A flag held in the right hand signifies yards to starboard; in the left hand, yards to port.

For lower yards the flag is held depressed at an angle of 45 °.

For topsail yards it is held horizontal.

For topgallant yards it is elevated 45°, and for royal yards held vertically over the head.

Signal for topping up lower booms with empty hand.

The lower yards are squared first, beginning with the fore, then the upper yards. In squaring the topsail-yards by the lifts the laniards are come up to two or three turns, and the jiggers hooked and hauled taut-that when topping up on one the other may be eased by the jigger steadily. When belay is piped clap on a heavy racking of spun-yarn.

In squaring light yards by the lifts, tend the braces, or the yards will get bowed. The boatswain's mate at the mast must see that in checking a light brace the yard is kept square by the braces. Sometimes a hand must be sell aloft to ride a light yard down.

Having squared the yards, the boatswain pulls around the ship, directing all gear to be hauled taut, and boats and lower booms squared. The stun'-sail booms should be rigged out alike and heels square, gaffs peaked up alike, the head booms properly stayed (usually straight, or with a slight downward curve-never with an upward curve). Harbor clothes-lines should be on a level from fore to mizzen mast, whips hauled up alike.

See that no ropes' ends are overboard or hanging from


the tops; windsails squared; hammocks leveled; clew-lines chock up; and that the tops, chains, &c., look neat.

When satisfied, the boatswain returns on board and reports to the officer of the deck:

The yards are square and the rigging hauled taut.

And the decks being cleared up, he is directed to


At which the square yardmen lay down from aloft together.


For description of fittings on the yards see RIGGING SHIP.

Tripping Lines. The hauling end reeves through a small tail-block. In port the other end is kept permanently bent to the snorter, and when the yard goes aloft it is toggled at the slings. It serves in this way to guy the yards clear when going aloft.

In sending down the toggle is slipped at the first roll. *

Yard Ropes. The after or hauling part of the yard-rope is kept coiled down in the top, and is paid down on deck and rove through a snatch-block hooked to the deck, abaft the mast, when prepared for use.

When not crossed the yards are kept in the lower rigging, the topgallant yard on one side and the royal yard on the other, their lower ends resting in a becket or stirrup, and the upper end secured to the forward shroud.

The fore and mizzen topgallant yards are kept on the port side, the main on the starboard.

When the light yards are crossed the gear should always be bent and clear for making sail. The "gear" comprehends topgallant and royal sheets and clewlines, topgallant buntline and bunt-whip.

Bull-Rope for topgallant yards. A small bull's-eye is secured to the forward swifter, at the height of the upper topgallant yard-arm, when the yard is in the rigging.

The bull-rope has a good-sized eye formed in its upper end, and a small whip from the pin-rail tailed on to its lower end; or it may reeve through a leader at the rail, then through the bull's-eye, with the standing part seized to the swifter.

The eye (or bight) of the bull-rope is overhauled to the lower yard, and there slipped over the upper yard-arm as the yard comes down, in order to trice it into the rigging. When in the rigging the upper yard-arm is secured by a grab lashing and the eye of the bull-rope hove off and brought down to the pin-rail, or the bight hauled taut.

* See these tripping lines coiled down clear when exercising at making sail with light yards aloft.


Gear Stops are placed on each side of the topmast head, secured at the eyes of the topmast rigging. They are used to stop in the topgallant sheets, topgallant clewline, royal sheet and clewline, and eye of the topgallant lift and brace. Some ships use also checking lines, which are rove through bull's-eyes on either side of the topmast cross-trees and jack, and led into the tops. They are. toggled around the eyes of the lifts and braces the moment these are clear of the yard-arms, and haul them in snug to their respective mast-heads. Rarely used except in port.

Royal Sheets are much more easily handled when snatched in cleats screwed on the after side of the topgallant yard-arms, and fitted with rollers, the cleat taking the place of the sheave in the topgallant yard. This plan is adapted both for port drills and use at sea, and is frequently followed.

Topgallant Stun'-sail Jewel Blocks. The eyes of the jewel-blocks are marled to the eyes of the topgallant lifts and braces.

Sheets and Clewlines of topgallant sails, also of royals, are made fast together, so that they may be bent with one motion.

Quarter Blocks. When unhooked from the yards, the topgallant quarter-blocks hook to the topmast cap, royal quarter-blocks to beckets at the eyes of the topgallant rigging. Topgallant buntline and bunt-whip stop to the forward edge of the topmast cap.

Individual stations, showing number of men aloft:

In top-To tend lifts, send down yard ropes and put on topgallant halliards. * In top-To tend lifts and checking lines, send down yard ropes, take off top, gallant halliards.
The captains of tops and two men.
On topmast cap-Rig upper yard-arm, tend lizard, pass parrel, bend gear On topmast cap-Unbend gear, stop out yard rope, cast off parrel, draw toggle of tripping line.
One man.
On topmast crosstrees-Over-haul lower lift and brace down, assist with parrel and gear On topmast crosstrees-Bear off yard, unbend gear, assist man on cap.
One man.

* Usually put on at cross-trees.


On topsail yard-Rig lower yard-arm, then in top to lower lift On topsail yard-To bear off.
One man (from the top).
In topmast rigging-To over-haul down lower lift, then in top In the top-At checking lines, &c.
One man.
In lower rigging-Clear away the upper yard-arm, then to yard rope On lower yard-With eye of bull rope to heave over the upper yard-arm.
One man,
with additional assistance in the chains, as needed.
At jack-To rig upper yard-arm, tend lizard, pass parrel, bend gear At jack-Unbend gear, stop out yard rope,
cast off parrel, draw toggle of tripping line.
One man.
On topmast cross-trees-Rig lower yard-arm, bear off yard, bend gear On topmast cross-trees-Unbend gear, light up yard rope, bear off yard, &c.
One man.
In lower rigging-Clear away yard, then to yard rope In lower rigging-Receive yard and secure it.
One man.

NOTE.-The stations given above are those adopted in the Navy Station bill. But a common practice is to put on both royal lifts at the jack, the upper topgallant lift, &c., at the cap and the lower one at, or just below, the cross-trees. In each case the upper lift and brace is put on first, the yard then swayed chock up, and the lower lift put on. This avoids overhauling down the lower lifts and braces. Checking lines must be rove accordingly, if used.

Lizard. In lieu of the lizard described in RIGGING SHIP, a hook traveling on the yard rope, has been used on board many ships. Fig. 473.

(Color evolution.)

Preparatory signal being made, give the order to call:



The crew having gained their stations, when the preparatory is hauled down,


Send down the yard ropes!

Lead them out and man them. When execution signal is hoisted:

Beat the call!

This is the signal for the light yardmen to lay aloft from the tops. (If not at colors substitute the order ALOFT TOP-GALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!)


At this order, the upper topgallant yard-arm is carried clear of the top rim, the royal yard clear of the cross-trees.

When the yards are steady, and the men shortened in on their holds

SWAY ALOFT! When high enough for rigging the yardarms, the order is given

High enough! And when rigged-


When ready for crossing-

Tend the lifts and braces!

Stand by!

To drummer: Roll off! and at the third roll, or as signal is hauled down:


The yards are squared by lifts and braces.


When they are hauled up and neatly coiled away in the tops. Then:


When topgallant yards are across, the jack must be hoisted and hauled down with the colors.

If a yard has been crossed with a lift and brace foul, stop out the yard rope for a preventer lift lay out-take off the lift and brace and clear it, then cast off the stop and haul taut the yard rope.

(Color evolution.)

At five (5) minutes of sundown preparatory signal will be made. Order the boatswain to call:

DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS! when preparatory is hauled down,


Send down the yard-ropes!

* Not usually given, if drills are to be continued.


At the hoisting of the execution signal three (3) minutes before sundown:

Beat the call! The light yardmen lay aloft from the tops. (If not at colors, substitute the order: ALOFT TOP-GALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN!)

Snatch and lead along the yard ropes, man them (but not too strongly), take them near a cavil ready to catch a turn for lowering, which should be done by a careful hand. The tail blocks of the tripping lines are secured to eye-bolts well forward of the mast and at the side. Yard ropes and tripping lines are toggled in to the slings of the yards by a toggle to be drawn at the first roll.

Man the yard-ropes and tripping lines! Tend the lifts and braces! Stand by!

Be careful to start nothing till the execution signal is hauled down, then:


Sway at the third roll if not working by signal.

Pause, till all the lifts and braces are clear, then


Keeping a good strain on the tripping lines.

The checking lines being hauled in and everything secure aloft:


When the yards are crossed in the morning, the yard-rope is left stopped out to the quarter strap, and the bight overhauled down and stopped in to the slings; then at the first roll at sunset, the stop may be cut or broken; or toggle it with the tripping-line toggle.

(Color evolution.)

When the preparatory signal is hoisted, call:


Lead along the bowlines and halliards. (Indicates manner of loosing.)

On hauling down the preparatory:


Send down the yard ropes!

At signal of execution: Beat the call!


Man the boom tricing lines!


Man the bowlines, halliards, and head outhauls!

As soon as the yards are high enough for crossing, the men on the topmast cap and jack cast adrift the gaskets of the light sails, keeping fast the lower bunt gasket, and hold the sails up.


When ready:

Roll off!

At the third roll (or when execution signal is hauled down),



At which order the men run away with the halliards and bowlines, and head outhauls.


The light yardmen lay down into the tops when they have bent the gear, and will lay down on deck at the order-


The evolution of fidding topgallant-masts, crossing yards and loosing sail is also frequently performed with a well-drilled crew, and is similar to the above, the masts being fidded first, and the sail loosers sent aloft when the yards are swayed out of the chains.


(Sails loosed to a bowline.)

Preparatory signal being made, call:


When preparatory is hauled down:


Send down the yard ropes!

Man and tend the gear as in furling sail from a bowline. When execution signal is hoisted:

ALOFT TOPMEN! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole!


NOTE. If short-handed, it may be necessary to shorten sail before the topmen are sent aloft, in which case, SHORTEN SAIL! as execution signal is hoisted.

Man the boom tricing lines! TRICE UP!


Get the light yards ready for coming down!

In addition to the gear named and manned in UNBENDING SAIL, man the yard-ropes and tripping-lines.

Tend the lifts and braces! Stand by!

As the signal of execution is hauled down:


Sway the yards, ease away the head-earings.


Lower the light yards on deck; unbend their sails.

LAY IN! Stand by the booms!




When the light sails are unbent-

Man the topgallant and royal yard ropes!


Square yards; clear up the decks and pipe down.

If in this instance the topgallant-masts are also to be sent down, take the strain off the fids* by swaying up on the mast-ropes before sending the men aloft.

After the yards are swayed, and the royal yardmen off the jack, the fid is drawn by the man on the cross-trees.

The order MAN THE MAST-ROPES would come in after SEND DOWN THE YARD-ROPES.

The yard-ropes in this instance reeve through jack-blocks, as explained further on.


The Mast-rope reeves from aft forward through the topgallant top-block, at the topmast cap, then through the thimble of a lizard and the sheave in the heel of the mast. The end is hitched to a cap bolt on the opposite side.

The Lizard is long enough to pass through the royal sheave-hole, around the standing part of the mast-rope, and to secure with two half-hitches to its own part close to the thimble.

The Heel-rope is fitted with a tail-block, like a tripping-line. When in use its upper end is hitched to the link in the heel of the topgallant-mast; lower end and block paid down on deck.

Preventer Fid. If used, each mast is bored parallel to and about sixteen inches above the regular fid, to take a. preventer fid of iron, about an inch in diameter, with an eye in the end. To this eye is secured a laniard made fast to the eyes of the topmast rigging.

The reeving line has a tail-block which secures to the after topgallant shroud. Both ends of the whip are sent on deck, and one end secured to the mast-rope, previously rove through its top-block and lizard. When swayed aloft, hook the top-block, cast off the reeving line, and reeve the mast-rope.

The flying jib heel-rope reeves through a tail-block which secures to the jib-stay. Hitch the end of the heel-rope through the score in the heel. The flying jib down-haul is bent to the heel of the boom to assist in rousing in.

The flying jib, if bent, is roused in with the boom and secured alongside the jib-boom.

The flying jib-boom is not usually rigged in when exercising topgallant-masts.

Topgallant and royal yard-ropes. In port, when

* This does not mean to draw them, as topmen are likely to do, if not cautioned.


top-gallant-masts are to be frequently sent up and down, the mast-ropes are kept aloft ready for use, and the yard-ropes rove off through the jack-blocks at the eyes of the topgallant and royal rigging.

The topgallant-masts when down are landed up and down and forward of their respective masts. The flying jib-boom is rigged in alongside of the jib-boom, its end pointing through the wythe.

When the topgallant-mast is up and down, put a stop around the royal pole, securing it to lower stays. If there is any danger of the ship's rolling, secure the heel also, or land the mast on deck.

In swaying aloft to fid, when short-handed, the standing part of the mast-rope may lead through a second top-block, hooked to the eye-bolt where the end is usually hitched. The top burton of the side (led down on deck) is then hooked into a thimble clinched in the end of the mast-rope. After swaying the mast aloft as high as possible with the mast-rope, cross the deck and clap on the burton.

In unfidding, belay the mast-rope, pull up on the burton, out fid, belay burton, and lower with the mast-rope.

An iron traveler is substituted in many ships for the lizard, and is fitted as follows, Fig. 472, Plate 107.

The traveler is an iron hoop which goes around the mast and both parts of the mast-rope. It is leathered and fitted with a projecting eye on each side. Into these eyes are spliced the ends of two short spans.

One span, pointing downwards, has spliced to its centre a distance line, equal in length to the distance from the royal sheave hole to the bolt in the heel of the topgallant-mast. The other end of the distance line is permanently secured to this bolt.

The other span points upward, and has secured to its centre a checking line, which reeves through a small leader on the forward part of the topmast cap, thence to the deck.

In unfidding, when the mast is lowered the checking line is tended so as to keep a constant strain upon it. The iron ring travels up the mast the length of the distance line, and remains in place abreast of the royal sheave-hole, acting as a grommet or lizard.

In fidding, take through the slack of the checking line as the mast goes up, so as to keep the traveler in position. When the mast is pointed, let go the checking line, and the traveler falls to its usual place between the doubling's of the topmast and topgallant mast.

(Port Routine.)

Light yards on deck, using lizards. Preparatory signals being made, call-

Plate 107, Fig 472. Rigging the raising of a topgallant.


On hauling down preparatory signal:


Send down heel-ropes and reeving lines!

On deck. Get up the mast-ropes, and bend on the reeving lines ready to sway aloft. Let go all gear holding the mast; lifts, braces, and topgallant studding-sail halliards. Stand by to come up royal and topgallant back-stays.

In tops. Pay down reeving line abaft and heel-rope forward.

On hoisting of execution signal:


On deck, slack up topgallant and royal back-stays, stays and flying-jib guys; sway aloft the mast-ropes and topgallant top-blocks; lead out the mast-ropes.

Aloft. Slack up topgallant and royal shrouds and stays; hook topsail clew-jiggers to the crane lines on the back-stays, and haul them taut; unhook block (if any) at the heel of the topgallant-mast, shift to strap on collar of topmast stay, bend the heel-rope, secure the block of the reeving whip to the after topgallant shroud, and when mast-rope and block are swayed aloft, hook the block and reeve the mast-rope; cast off laniards of Jacob's ladder, and light up all the gear and topgallant shrouds.

On Flying jib-boom and bowsprit cap. Secure tail-block of heel-rope, pass the heel-rope, bend the flying jib down-haul to the heel of the boom; render the flying jib and royal stays through their scores, and cast off belly lashing, if used. Let go flying-jib halliards.


Haul taut! SWAY AND UNFID!

Haul out the regular fid, stand by to haul out the preventer.

On bowsprit cap, unclamp the heel of the flying jib-boom. Take turns for lowering fore and aft (or for easing in).

Stand by! Men aloft draw preventer fid.

As signal of execution is hauled down:


Lower roundly till the topgallant-mast head is clear, then handsomely till the lizard is passed through the royal sheave-hole: haul on the heel-rope to keep the heel clear, and land the masts up and down with their heels on chocks. Ease in the flying jib-boom, hauling in on the down-haul; secure the spar alongside the jib-boom. In the chains and head stop in the bights of all topgallant and royal stays and back-stays.

Aloft. Open the gate when the topgallant-mast head is abreast of the cap; pass the lizard; secure the topgallant and royal funnels to the cap, and make everything snug about the cross-trees and in the tops.


As soon as the work is done;


(Port Routine.)

The mast-ropes being rove off.

Preparatory signal being made, call:


When preparatory signal is hauled down:


On deck. Lead out mast-ropes and heel-rope of flying jib-boom; have straps and jiggers ready for setting up topgallant and royal stays, back-stays and flying jib guys; let go royal and topgallant gear, lifts, braces, clewlines, buntlines, &c., and topgallant studding-sail halliards.

Send down the reeving lines and heel-ropes! If the former are to be used, and the latter are not already on deck.


At the same time man the flying jib heel-rope.

Signal of execution being hoisted:


At cross-trees. Cut stops on royal and topgallant stays.

At the cap. Place the truck and funnels fair for receiving the topgallant-mast; see signal halliards and royal braces clear.

In the tops. Cut the stops on the topgallant and royal shrouds; thence to the topsail-yard to keep mast on the right slue.

Forward. Cast off lashings that secure flying jib-boom; have clamp ready for heel.

At hauling down of execution signal:


Men on the topsail-yard keep the mast on the right slue for fidding, using a heaver through the heel.

At the cross-trees. The lizard is cast off and mast-head pointed; clamp the gate when the heel is above the topsail-yard; light up rigging: stand by with preventer, then with regular fid.

On the cap. Place the truck and funnels.

The flying jib-boom is roused out by its heel-rope, bearing down on the heel if necessary.

When the sheave of the topgallant-mast arrives above the cap, shorten in on the mast-rope.

As execution signal is hauled down:


At the topmast cap keep the Jacob's ladder


from fouling;* give timely warning if any gear holds the mast; prepare reeving line to send down mast-rope, if desired.

At cross-trees shove in preventer, and then regular fid as soon as possible. When fid is in, sing out "Launch!"

Cast off the mast-rope, send it down with the top-block, by the reeving line, if desired, then carry, the latter into the top. Unhook clew-jiggers from crane lines.

Set up all topgallant and royal shrouds, stays and back-stays; haul taut on deck all topgallant and royal gear; stow away mast-ropes, luffs, and jiggers.

When ready aloft:


If these exercises are to be continued the mast-ropes remain rove off in port.

(Color evolution.)

Mast ropes rove off.

The preparatory signal being made, call:


Men go to their stations for sending down the light yards excepting those who can be spared to prepare for coming up the topgallant and royal back-stays, &c.

On hauling down of preparatory signal:

TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS! Send down the yard-ropes and heel-ropes!

The execution signal being hoisted:

Beat the call, or


Man the yard ropes and tripping lines!

Tend the lifts and braces! Stand by!

As execution signal is hauled down,

Roll off! At third roll:


The men on the jack lay down to the cross-trees as soon as the yards are swayed.



And when everything is secure aloft:


* A small quarter-round chock on after part of topmast-head will accomplish this purpose. Similarly a scored wedge forward on the under side of the cap is wised to prevent the hounds from catching.



(Color evolution.)

Masts up and down.

The preparatory signal being made, call:


Men go their stations for sending up topgallant masts. When preparatory signal is hauled down:


Man the topgallant mast ropes!

At the same time man the flying jib heel rope.

When the signal of execution is hoisted,


When fidded, "Launch" (the fore, main, or mizzen). Then go to stations for crossing light yards.


When the yards are up and down:


Proceed as in sending up topgallant and royal yards. When ready for crossing:

Tend the lifts and braces!

Stand by! As signal is hauled down, Roll off! At the third roll:


And when ready:


For quick work the topgallant mast ropes and topgallant yard ropes should be on the same side, the men turning from one to the other.


To Rig Out and In Lower Booms. Having the booms rigged for port and ready, order: Man the boom topping-lifts! Forward guys! This gear is manned, both sides equally, if by the watch, first part starboard side, second part port side, and have a hand to tend the after-guy.

Haul taut! TOP UP!

Walk away with the topping lifts until the blocks are down to the mark. When, RIG OUT! ease away the after-guys and square the booms.

To get them alongside-Man the after-guys! Tend the topping-lift and forward guy! Set taut! HAUL AFT!


To Spread Awnings. Place the awning stanchions and ridge ropes, get the awnings up out of the sail room and fore-and-aft in their respective parts of the ship. (If awnings are up and on a stretch they must be slacked down together to loose). Call:


Loose the awnings, haul out on the fore-and-aft tackles, reeve and man the earings. When ready,

HAUL OUT! and when the earings are out,


The men all lay out together, haul out the side stops, expending the ends. Pass the lacings connecting the different awnings. When finished, LAY IN!

Let go crow-foot halliards before hauling out earings and stops, and haul taut again after these are passed.

To Furl Awnings. Call:


Men being up:


At the same time cast adrift the lacings. When ready,


The earings are eased away together; the men lay in, roll up the awnings neatly, hook the fore-and-aft tackles, and HAUL OUT! together.

Hammock Girtlines and Harbor Clothes-lines are fitted double. In the bight of the line is seized a hook and thimble; the hook secures to a bolt in the stern. The two lines leading forward pass through thimbles in rope jackstays that hang up and down each mast. Forward, the ends of the lines are spliced together around the after-sheave of a, fiddle-block. Through the forward sheave is rove a whip, one end spliced into a block hooked at the bowsprit cap, the other rove through the fiddle-block, and thence through the block on the cap and inboard.

The rope jackstay at each mast has an eye in its upper end for the mast-whip and a tail at the lower end to use as a down-haul.

These lines are prepared beforehand, and triced up at the third roll at sunset, at which time boats are also hoisted.

To Lower Wash Clothes with the Awnings Spread; after the men are on deck:

Stand by to lay out! When ready, LAY OUT! Cast off side tops-EASE AWAY! LAY IN!

Easing away the earings and slacking the lacings, then:

PIPE DOWN! the clothes; and when the lines are triced up again, or unhooked for sending below, haul out the earings; Stand by to lay out! &c., as in spreading awnings.

Have the master-at-arms and ship's corporals on deck to


look out for clothing of men away in boats. See the lines weeded of rope-yarns before tricing up again or stowing below, but it is still better to enforce the use of regular clothes stops, which are secured to the clothing and cast adrift, not cut.

In firing a salute, with scrubbed hammocks or clothes on the lines, man the down-hauls and lower and haul down before the first gun, tricing up again after the last gun.

Dressing Ship. Ships are either dressed rainbow or yard-arm fashion.

In the first case an arch of flags extends from the water's edge to the jib-boom,* thence to the topgallant mastheads, spanker gaff and boom, and to the water's edge astern.

By the second method the flags are bent on to the signal halliards, which are rove through the topgallant stun'-sail halliard blocks, and sent down forward of all. When the flags are triced up the halliards are hauled out to all the yardarms and lower boom ends, hanging to the water's edge.

The best way is to combine both methods, if there be flags enough, or use the rainbow, and in addition, dress the main, yard-arm fashion.

In any case, the ensign of the nation in whose honor the display is made is hoisted at the fore, the American ensign being hoisted at the main and mizzen. No other national flags are used in dressing ship.

To perform the evolution properly, there should be fitted dressing lines of small rope to which the numbers are stitched, each dressing line having a down-haul bent on in the centre.

The forward one goes from the jib-boom end to the fore-topgallant masthead, and is hoisted by the flying jib halliards or other whip.

The dressing lines between the masts are hoisted by the royal yard-ropes, previously unrove from their sheaves and taken through blocks at the topgallant mastheads.

At the main and mizzen reeve off additional whips abaft the masts. The whip abaft the mizzen mast trices up the dressing line that leads from the mizzen topgallant masthead to the gaff (where it is hauled out by one set of the peak ensign halliards), and thence to the spanker-boom end.

The ends of the dressing lines forward and aft drop from the jib-boom and spanker boom ends to the water's edge.

They are decorated with the boat numbers and other small bunting, and steadied by hand leads at the ends.

Care and taste are necessary in placing the flags. They should be equidistant. Use the square flags between the mastheads and the pennants forward and aft, or alternate flags and pennants throughout.

Topgallant-yards are generally not sent down on the

* Vide Navy Signal Book.


evening previous to dressing ship; but, should they be, cross them in the morning in good season.

The royal halliards and other whips are prepared aloft, overhauled down and bent to the dressing lines.

When the call is beaten, round up the masthead ensigns made up, and send aloft the captain of each top and two hands, one of whom, going to the masthead, stops the tack in when broke; the other, remaining in the top, clears the flags should they foul.

Man the whips! And at colors.*

Break stops! TRICE TIP!

The principal beauty of the manoeuvre is to have everything so prepared that the masthead flags are displayed and the others triced up so as to reach their places readily. If yard-arm fashion, hands previously sent aloft lay out together at the same time to each yard-arm, stopping out the flag halliards, and then, at the word, laying in together.

On a shift of wind, or at the turn of the tide, if lying in a tideway, send hands aloft together to clear the flags.

At sunset, haul the flags down just before sending down the topgallant yards.

Manning Yards. Men for manning yards will be selected from the furlers and men stationed in tops at furling, as far as practicable, except those for the cross-jack yard, who will be taken from the afterguard not stationed on the main-yard.

Before the time to man yards, the men selected for the several yards will be assembled by watches on their respective sides, facing forward, as follows: Those for the head yards, on the forecastle: for the main yards, in the gangways; and for the yards on the mizzen, on the quarterdeck; lower yardmen inside of the topsail and topgallant yardmen.

The several captains, petty officers, and leading men will tell off their men from forward, in the order of their numbers on the yards, and size them, placing the tallest men in the bunt and the shortest at the yard-arms.

Prepare to man in a similar way the head booms and spanker boom; also the lower booms, unless the men there would interfere with the firing of salutes. On the head booms the tallest man is inboard; on the spanker boom the tallest man is forward.

The prevailing practice at present is to leave the royal yards in the rigging, and instead of manning topgallant yards (especially in small vessels), to station four hands on the cross-trees and two on the jack.

As soon as the selection for each yard is told off and sized, four men for each lower and topsail yard, and two

* It is usual to dress ship at sunrise, in which case the colors should be hoisted at that time.


for each topgallant yard, with two men for the tops, will be ordered aloft to attach the life-lines, laying down afterwards into the tops or on deck.

The life-lines will be rove through tail-blocks, made fast to the slings, tyes, and yard-ropes (those to the latter being steadied by a turn around the masts), the other ends hitched or seized to the lifts at points which will bring the lines breast high when hauled taut, the ends sent on deck. If the yards are not to be manned immediately, the men preparing the life-lines, before laying down, will stop them along the lifts down to the yards and in the slings, with cut or split rope-yarns, and lay down from aloft.

When the evolution is to be performed, the men are sent aloft. When in the slings the order will be given to "Stand by!" The stops will be broken and the life-lines hauled taut on deck and. secured. At the order "LAY OUT," the men will lay out as sized.

The yard-arm men extend their outside arms straight, holding on by the lift, while they clap their inner arms over the life-lines, holding it fast under the arm-pit; the next man in the same way extends his outer arm, and grapples the shoulder of the yard-arm man; then passes his inner arm over the life-line, clasping it under his arm-pit, and so on to the bunt.

The appearance of the boat, at whatever distance it may be, is the customary signal for manning yards; yet it is preferable to judge of the distance, and act so that the men may not be more than ten minutes aloft.

The men on the yards ought to face the boat; that is, when the boat is abaft the beam, they ought to face aft: when before the beam, forward; but in a ship, when the person saluted ascends the side, the hands on the cross-jack and mizzen topsail yards ought to face forward-all others as before, aft.

When directed to "LAY IN," the outer men will cast off the life-lines from the lifts, and the inner men the tail-blocks in the slings, and will stand by to lay down from aloft when ordered.

Men are not usually assigned by watch numbers on a station bill for manning yards, in consequence of the necessity for sizing and the liability of absence from various causes.

Cockbilling Yards-Mourning. The most appropriate time for cockbilling yards is daylight, and dark the proper time for squaring them again.*

At the hour selected, hoist the colors half-mast, sway up the topgallant yards, slip the lizard, parrel the yards, and cockbill them with the others previously reversed.

* In half-masting colors, first hoist them to the peak, then lower. Similarly in hauling down half-masted colors, hoist first to the peak.


In topping up the lower yards a burton is required to assist the lift in topping.

To allow the topsail yards to top up properly, they must be hoisted two feet off the caps, the parrels and braces must be slacked. Trysail and spanker gaff should be lowered well down, and swinging booms dropped into the water.

The way of topping the yards ought to be governed by the side on which the topgallant yards are sent up; for instance, as the main topgallant yard is sent up on the starboard side, the main and main topsail yards should be topped to port. Getting them in line, when topped, should be done with reference to lower yards; which, in the first place, are topped as high as the top rims will allow; then being squared by the braces, the topsail and topgallant yards have only to be parallel.

The lower yards top up better by the burtons alone.

For painting ship, scraping spars, &c., see Appendix H.

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